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Endophytic Fungi: A Cryptic Fountainhead for Biodiversity, Functional Metabolites, Host Stress Tolerance, and Myco-Mediated Nanoparticles (Nps) Synthesis

  • Jay Hind Nishad
  • Arti Singh
  • Veer Singh Gautam
  • Dharmendra Kumar
  • Jitendra Kumar
  • R. N. KharwarEmail author
Living reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

The view on association of higher plants and fungi from past few decades confirms the belief that all plants foster their own endophytic fungal diversity as a host, and all plant species studied till date are found to harbor one or more endophytes. The diversity of endophytic fungi can have deep impressions on plant communities through adding fitness to their concerned host conferring tolerance against abiotic and biotic stresses. While endophytes have been outlined to biosynthesize a wide array of molecules, genome sequencing of such organisms has revealed that these have the potential to provide many more secondary metabolites than usual. Recently, various methods have been advanced to aid in the activation of cryptic biosynthetic pathways. Since the most important medicinal compound taxol (paclitaxel) has been isolated from the endophytic fungus therefore, more plant mimetic compounds may be expected from this hidden microbial source. Various enzymes (amylase, lipase, cellulase, protease, lactase, pectinases, peroxidase, catalase, and penicillinase) and toxins (aflatoxin, zearalenone, ochratoxin, citrinin, T-2 toxin, and fumonisins) may be isolated from this repertoire. Cell-free extract of many endophytic fungal isolates may also be utilized to synthesize the nanoparticles like copper (Cu), silver (Ag), platinum (Pt), and gold (Au) from respective metal salt solutions. This chapter also discusses different approaches such as co-culture of microbes, altering growth media and culture conditions, genetic as well as epigenetic strategies for obtaining the biochemical treasure hidden within these unique microbes.

Keywords

Cryptic metabolites Nanoparticles Epigenetics Biodiversity Stress resistance Natural product 

Abbreviations

ABA

Absiscic acid

AgNPs

Silver nanoparticles

AZA

5-Azacytidine

CPT

Camptothecin

DPPH

2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

GA

Gibberellic acid

HDAC

Histone deacetylases

IAA

Indole acetic acid

JA

Jasmonic acid

RPCs

Rat prolactinoma

SA

Salicylic acid

SAHA

Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid

VOC

Volatile organic compound

Notes

Acknowledgments

Authors are thankful to the Head and Coordinator, CAS and DST-FIST in Botany, Institute of Science, BHU, Varanasi, India, for providing essential facilities and supports. Authors appreciably acknowledge the helps of ISLS and DST-PURSE, UGC-UPE, BHU, Varanasi, India, for minor help, respectively. RNK expresses his gratefulness to Department of Science and Technology, SERB, New Delhi, for the project [SB/EMEQ-121/2014].

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jay Hind Nishad
    • 1
  • Arti Singh
    • 1
  • Veer Singh Gautam
    • 1
  • Dharmendra Kumar
    • 1
  • Jitendra Kumar
    • 1
  • R. N. Kharwar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Mycopathology and Microbial Technology Laboratory, CAS in Botany, Institute of ScienceBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

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