Polysaccharide–Aloe vera Bioactive Hydrogels as Wound Care System

  • Surabhi Singh
  • Sadiya Anjum
  • Jincy Joy
  • Bhuvanesh GuptaEmail author
Living reference work entry
Part of the Polymers and Polymeric Composites: A Reference Series book series (POPOC)


Wound care is an essential aspect of any trauma or surgical procedure. Designing an ideal wound healing system requires moist wound bed, proper exudate absorption, optimal diffusion of gases and minimum microbial invasion at the wound site which play a pivotal role. Therefore, choice of an ideal wound dressing is an essential step toward it contributing to the acceleration of wound repair and regeneration as well as prevention from microbial infection. This chapter is dedicated to the development of polysaccharide (PS)-based hydrogels for wound care system by incorporating herbal bioactive agents such as aloe vera which would provide deep insights into the designing aspect of the dressing by incorporation of features of the natural system. The healing aspect and tissue regeneration by PS or its combination with other natural polymers and aloe vera are discussed in the chapter.


Aloe vera Chitosan Wound dressing Hydrogel Scar preventive 


  1. 1.
    Mogosanu GD, Grumezescu AM (2010) Natural and synthetic polymers for wounds and burns dressing. Int J Pharm 463:127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mayet N, Choonara YE, Kumar P, Tomar LK, Tyagi C, Du toit LC, Pillay VA (2014) A comprehensive review of advanced biopolymeric wound healing systems. J Pharm Sci 103:2211–2230CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Babu RP, O’Connor K, Seeram R (2013) Current progress on bio-based polymers and their future trends. Prog Biomater 2:8CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vasconcelos A, Pêgo AP, Henriques L, Lamghari M, Cavaco-Paulo A (2010) Protein matrices for improved wound healing: elastase inhibition by a synthetic peptide model. Biomacromolecules 11:2213–2220CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Morton LM, Phillips TJ (2012) Wound healing update. Semin Cutan Med Surg 1:33–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schreml S, Szeimies R, Prantl L, Landthaler M, Babilas P (2010) Wound healing in the 21st century. J Am Acad Dermatol 63:866–881CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nardini JT, Chapnick DA, Liu X, Bortz DM (2016) Modeling keratinocyte wound healing dynamics: cell-cell adhesion promotes sustained collective migration. J Theor Biol 400:103–117CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vowden K, Vowden P (2014) Wound dressings: principles and practice. Surgery (Oxford) 32:462–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fiot J, Sanon S, Azas N, Mahiou V, Jansen O, Angenot L, Balansard G, Ollivier E (2006) Phytochemical and pharmacological study of roots and leaves of Guiera senegalensis J.F. Gmel. (Combretaceae). J Ethnopharmacol 106:173–178CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boateng JS, Matthews KH, Stevens NE, Eccleston GM (2008) Wound healing dressings and drug delivery systems: a review. J Pharm Sci 97:2892–2923CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kiyozumi T, Kanatani Y, Ishihara M, Saitoh D, Shimizu J, Yura H, Suzuki S, Okada Y, Kikuchi M (2006) Medium (DMEM/F12)-containing chitosan hydrogel as adhesive and dressing in autologous skin grafts and accelerator in the healing process. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 79:129–136CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yamane T, Nakagami G, Yoshino S, Shimura M, Kitamura A, Kobayashi-Hattori K, Oishi Y, Nishijima Y, Minematsu T, Sanada H (2015) Hydrocellular foam dressings promote wound healing associated with decrease in inflammation in rat periwound skin and granulation tissue, compared with hydrocolloid dressings. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 79:185–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wiegand C, Hipler UC (2010) Polymer-based biomaterials as dressings for chronic stagnating wounds. Macromol Symp 294:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liu J, Willför S, Xu C (2015) A review of bioactive plant polysaccharides: biological activities, functionalization, and biomedical applications. Bioact Carbohydr Diet Fibre 5:31–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Boateng J, Catanzano O (2015) Advanced therapeutic dressings for effective wound healing-a review. J Pharm Sci 104:3653–3680CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dash M, Chiellini F, Ottenbrite RM, Chellini E (2011) Chitosan – a versatile semi-synthetic polymer in biomedical applications. Prog Polym Sci 36:981–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rahman S, Carter P, Bhattaraj N (2017) Aloe vera for tissue engineering applications. J Funct Biomater 8:6CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pereira R, Carvalho A, Vaz DC, Gil MH (2013) Development of novel alginate based hydrogel films for wound healing applications. Int J Biol Macromol 52:221–230CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tummalapalli M, Berthet M, Verrier B, Deopura BL, Alam MS, Gupta B (2016) Composite wound dressings of pectin and gelatin with aloe vera and curcumin as bioactive agents. Int J Biol Macromol 82:104–113CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Liakos I, Rizzello L, Hajiali H, Brunetti V, Carzino R, Pompa PP, Athanassiou A, Mele E (2015) Fibrous wound dressings encapsulating essential oils as natural antimicrobial agents. J Mater Chem B 3:1583–1589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Díez-Pascual AM, Díez-Vicente AL (2015) Wound healing bionanocomposites based on castor oil polymeric films reinforced with chitosan-modified ZnO nanoparticles. Biomacromolecules 16:2631–2644CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Anjum S, Gupta A, Sharma D, Gautam D, Kapil A, Sharma A, Bhan S, Gupta B (2016) Development of novel wound care systems based on nanosilver nanohydrogels of polymethacrylic acid with Aloe vera and curcumin. Mater Sci Eng C 64:157–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Anjum S, Gupta A, Sharma D, Dadal P, Gupta B (2016) Skin compatibility and antimicrobial studies on biofunctionalized polypropylene fabric. Mater Sci Eng C 69:1043–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hosseini SF, Zandi M, Rezaei M, Farahmandghavi F (2013) Two-step method for encapsulation of oregano essential oil in chitosan nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and in vitro release study. Carbohydr Polym 95:50–56CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhang Y, Niu Y, Luo Y, Ge M, Yang T, Yu L, Wang Q (2014) Fabrication, characterization and antimicrobial activities of thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized by sodium caseinate-chitosan hydrochloride double layers. Food Chem 142:269–275CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sánchez-Machado DI, López-Cervantes J, Sendón R (2017) Aloe vera: ancient knowledge with new frontiers. Trends Food Sci Technol 61:94–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hashemi SA, Madani SA, Abediankenari S (2015) The review on properties of aloe vera in healing of cutaneous wounds. Biomed Res Int 2015:714216. p. 6CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lakshmi PTV, Rajalakshmi P (2011) Identification of phyto components and its biological activities of Aloe vera through the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Int Res J Pharm 2:247–249Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Habeeb F, Shakir E, Bradbury F, Cameron P, Taravati MR, Drummond AJ, Gray AI, Ferro VA (2007) Screening methods used to determine the anti-microbial properties of Aloe vera inner gel. Methods 42:315–320CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hamman JH (2008) Composition and applications of Aloe vera leaf gel. Molecules 13:1599–1616CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Balaji A, Vellayappan MV, John AA, Subramanian AP, Jaganathan SK, Selva Kumar M, Faudzi AAM, Supriyantoa E, Yusofa M (2015) Biomaterials based nano-applications of Aloe vera and its perspective: a review. RSC Adv 5:86199–86213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wahedi HM, Jeong M, Chae JK, Do SG, Yoon H, Kim SY (2017) Aloesin from Aloe vera accelerates skin wound healing by modulating MAPK/Rho and Smad signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo. Phytomedicine 28:19–26CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fox LT, Mazumder A, Dwivedi A, Gerber M, Du Plessis J, Hamman JH (2017) In vitro wound healing and cytotoxic activity of the gel and whole-leaf materials from selected aloe species. J Ethnopharmacol 200:1–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kamoun EA, Kenawy ES, Chen X (2017) A review on polymeric hydrogel membranes for wound dressing applications: PVA-based hydrogel dressings. J Adv Res 8:217–233CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Park KR, Nho YC (2004) Preparation and characterization by radiation of hydrogels of PVA and PVP containing Aloe vera. J Appl Polym Sci 91:1612–1618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Niamlang S, Buranut T, Niansiri A (2011) Electrically controlled aloe vera extraction release from polyacrylamide gel. Energy Procedia 9:468–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ghayempour S, Montazer M, Rad MM (2016) Simultaneous encapsulation and stabilization of Aloe vera extract on cotton fabric for wound dressing application. RSC Adv 6:111895–111902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gupta B, Agarwal R, Alam MS (2013) Aloe vera loaded poly(vinyl alcohol)–poly(ethylene oxide)-carboxymethyl cellulose. J Biomater Tissue Eng 3:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Harper D, Young A, McNaught CE (2014) The physiology of wound healing. Surgery (Oxford) 32:445–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Maenthaisong R, Chaiyakunapruk N, Niruntraporn S, Kongkaew C (2007) The efficacy of aloe vera used for burn wound healing: a systematic review. Burns 33:713–718CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Choi S, Chung MH (2003) A review on the relationship between Aloe vera components and their biologic effects. Semin Integr Med 1:53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Neena IE, Ganesh E, Poornima P, Korishettar R (2015) An ancient herb aloe vera in dentistry: a review. J Oral Res Rev 7:25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Chithra P, Sajithlal GB, Chandrakasan G (1998) Influence of Aloe vera on the glycosaminoglycans in the matrix of healing dermal wounds in rat. J Ethnopharmacol 59:179–186CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Davis RH, Donato JJD, Hartman GM, Haas RC (1994) Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity of a growth substance in Aloe vera. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 84:77–81CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Radha MH, Laxmipriya NP (2014) Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of Aloe vera: a systematic review. J Tradit Complement Med 5:21–26CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tabandeh MR, Oryan A, Mohammadalipour A (2014) Polysaccharides of Aloe vera induce MMP-3 and TIMP-2 gene expression during the skin wound repair of rat. Int J Biol Macromol 65:424–430CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Silva SS, Oliveira MB, Mano JF, Reis RL (2014) Bio-inspired Aloe vera sponges for biomedical applications. Carbohydr Polym 112:264–270CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gontijo SML, Gomes ADM, Gala-Garcia A, Sinisterra RD, Cortés MD (2013) Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and cell viability of Aloe vera sponges. Electron J Biotechnol 16:1–10Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    McConaughy SD, Kirkland SE, Treat NJ, Stroud PA, McCormick CL (2008) Tailoring the network properties of Ca2+ crosslinked Aloe vera polysaccharide hydrogels for in situ release of therapeutic agents. Biomacromolecules 9:3277–3287CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rodríguez-Bigas M, Cruz NI, Suárez A (1998) Comparative evaluation of aloe vera in the management of burn wounds in Guinea pigs. Plast Reconstr Surg 81:386–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ali K, Dwivedi S, Azam A, Saquib Q, Al-Said MS, Alkhedhairy AA (2016) Aloe vera extract functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticles as nanoantibiotics against multidrugresistant clinical bacterial isolates. J Colloid Interface Sci 471:145–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Anitha A, Sowmya S, Kumar PTS, Deepthi S, Chennazhi KP, Ehrlich H, Tsurkan M, Jayakumar R (2014) Chitin and chitosan in selected biomedical applications. Prog Polym Sci 39:1644–1667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dey A, Bera R, Chakrabarty D (2015) Influence of Aloe vera on the properties of N-vinylpyrrolidone-acrylamide copolymer hydrogel. Mater Chem Phys 168:168–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Anjum S, Arora A, Alam MS, Gupta B (2016) Development of antimicrobial and scar preventive chitosan hydrogel wound dressings. Int J Pharm 508:92–101CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wani MY, Hasan N, Malik MA (2010) Chitosan and Aloe Vera: two gifts of nature. J Dispers Sci Technol 31:799–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Menda JP, Reddy T, Deepika R, Pandima DM, Sastry TP (2014) Preparation and characterization of wound healing composites of chitosan, aloe vera and Calendula officinalis – a comparative study. Am J Phytomed Clin Ther 2:61–76Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Khoshgozaran-Abras S, Azizi MH, Hamidy Z, Bagheripoor-Fallah N (2012) Mechanical, physicochemical and color properties of chitosan based-films as a function of Aloe vera gel incorporation. Carbohydr Polym 87:2058–2062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Silva SS, Popa EG, Gomes ME, Cerqueira M, Marques AP, Caridade SG, Teixeira P, Sousaa C, Mano JF, Reis RL (2013) An investigation of the potential application of chitosan/aloe-based membranes for regenerative medicine. Acta Biomater 9:6790–6797CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Pereira GG, Santos-Oliveira R, Albernaz MS, Canema D, Weismüller G, Barros EB, Magalhães L, Lima-Ribeiro MHM, Pohlmann AR, Guterres SS (2014) Microparticles of Aloe vera/vitamin E/chitosan: microscopic, a nuclear imaging and an in vivo test analysis for burn treatment. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 86:292–300CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gupta B, Arora A, Saxena S, Alam S (2009) Preparation of chitosan–polyethylene glycol coated cotton membranes for wound dressings: preparation and characterization. Polym Adv Technol 20:58–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gupta B, Anjum S, Gautam D, Saxena S, Joy J, Mishra A, Ikram S (2012) Preparation and physiochemical characteristics of crosslinked chitosan-polyethylene glycol hydrogels. Trends Carbohydr Res 4:34–41Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Silva SS, Caridade SG, Mano JF, Reis RL (2013) Effect of crosslinking in chitosan/aloe vera-based membranes for biomedical applications. Carbohydr Polym 98:581–588CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ghayempour S, Montazer M, Rad MM (2016) Encapsulation of Aloe Vera extract into natural Tragacanth Gum as a novel green wound healing product. Int J Biol Macromol 93:344–349CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bierhalz ACK, Lopes SA, Pires ALR, Moraes AM (2017) Development of polysaccharide-based membranes incorporating the bioactive compound aloin. Int J Polym Mater Polym Biomater 66:193–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    López Angulo DE, do Amaral Sobral PJ (2016) Characterization of gelatin/chitosan scaffold blended with aloe vera and snail mucus for biomedical purpose. Int J Biol Macromol 92:645–653CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jithendra P, Rajam AM, Kalaivani T, Mandal AB, Rose C (2013) Preparation and characterization of aloe vera blended collagen-chitosan composite scaffold for tissue engineering applications. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5:7291–7298CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ibrahim I, Sekak KA (2016) Releasing study of encapsulated aloe vera from electrospun chitosan nanofibers. Int J Appl Eng Res 11:9711–9714Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Singh S, Gupta B (2016) Development and characterization of nanosoy-reinforced dextran nanocomposite membranes. J Appl Polym Sci 134:44655Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Singh S (2017) Studies on the development of dextran based bionanocomposite membranes for wound care. PhD thesis, IIT, Delhi, pp 154–163Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Surabhi Singh
    • 1
  • Sadiya Anjum
    • 1
  • Jincy Joy
    • 1
  • Bhuvanesh Gupta
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Bioengineering Laboratory, Department of Textile TechnologyIndian Institute of TechnologyNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations