Advertisement

Cellulose-Based Hydrogel for Personal Hygiene Applications

  • Md. Obaidul Haque
  • Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal
Living reference work entry
Part of the Polymers and Polymeric Composites: A Reference Series book series (POPOC)

Abstract

Personal hygiene product is an inseparable part of urban society. It has given comfort, reliability, and flexibility to sick people, women, and children. The hygiene items containing superabsorbent polymer (hydrogels) for absorbing large amount of body fluids are the attractive inventions of modern science. The hydrogels swell and imbibe body fluids in the presence of hydrophilic functional groups in the polymeric backbone. Current trend of using acrylate-based superabsorbent in hygiene products is creating significant portion of urban garbage. This pile up is not only shrinking land sites but also harming a lot to the environment due to non-degradability of superabsorbent materials existing in the core of hygiene product. In spite of high water-holding capacity of petrochemical-based superabsorbent polymer, it has a hidden curse on nature of non-degradability and health risk. Cellulose is the most abundant biocompatible matter on this earth which basically originated from plants. It is also naturally occurring long chain polymer that plays a vital role in food cycle in animal kingdom. Besides this cellulose, its derivatives have large application in various fields. As cellulose and its etherified and esterified derivatives have attractive physicochemical and mechanical properties, hydrogels synthesized from cellulose and its derivative can be alternative to synthetic superabsorbent polymer. Cellulose-based hydrogels have found application in various fields like agriculture, biomedical, tissue engineering, wound dressing, pharmaceuticals, etc. Among various applications, some products are available in the market, and some are in research level. Due to fast swelling and other extraordinary properties (i.e., biocompatible and biodegradable), cellulosic materials (cellulose-originated hydrogels) can be applied in personal hygiene product so that superabsorbent from nonrenewable materials is partially or completely replaced. In this chapter, history of using superabsorbent in hygiene product, brief discussion on hydrogel synthesis, health and environment risk related to non-cellulosic absorbent materials, suitability of cellulose-based hydrogels over available acrylate hydrogels, and recommendation for development have been discussed.

Keywords

Cellulose Hygiene products Diaper Hydrogel Superabsorbent 

References

  1. 1.
    Buchholz FL, Peppas NA (1994) Superabsorbent polymers science and technology, ACS symposium series, vol 573. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, Ch 2, 7, 8, 9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Marcì G, Mele G, Palmisano L, Pulito P, Sannino A (2006) Environmentally sustainable production of cellulose-based superabsorbent hydrogels. Green Chem 8(5):439–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sannino A, Mensitieri G, Nicolais L (2004) Water and synthetic urine sorption capacity of cellulose based hydrogels under a compressive stress field. J Appl Polym Sci 91(6):3791–3796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sarvas M, Pavlenda P, Takacova E (2007) Effect of hydrogel application on survival and growth of pine seedlings in reclamations. J Forest Sci 53(5):204–209Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mao L, Hu Y, Piao Y, Chen X, Xian W, Piao D (2005) Structure and character of artificial muscle model constructed from fibrous hydrogel. Curr Appl Phys 5(5):426–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Qiu Y, Park K (2001) Environment-sensitive hydrogels for drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 53(3):321–339CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Richter A, Howitz S, Kuckling D, Arndt KF (2004) Influence of volume phase transition phenomena on the behavior of hydrogel-based valves. Sens Actuat B 99(2–3):451–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    El-Hag Ali A, Abd El-Rehim H, Kamal H, Hegazy D (2008) Synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose based drug carrier hydrogel using ionizing radiation for possible use as specific delivery system. J Macromol Sci Pure Appl Chem 45(8):628–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nguyen KT, West JL (2002) Photo polymerizable hydrogels for tissue engineering applications. Biomaterials 23(22):4307–4314CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Irani M, Ismail H, Ahmad Z, Fan M (2015) Synthesis of linear low density polyethylene-g-poly (acrylic acid)-co-starch/organomontmorillonite hydrogel composite as an adsorbent for removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. J Environ Sci 27:9–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sokker HH, El-Sawy NM, Hassan MA, El-Anadouli BE (2011) Adsorption of crude oil from aqueous solution by hydrogel of chitosan based polyacrylamide prepared by radiation induced graft polymerization. J Hazard Mater 190:359–365CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hosseinzadeh H, Pourjavadi A, Zohuriaan-Mehr MJ (2004) Modified carrageenan. 2. Hydrolyzed crosslinked kappa-carrageenan-g-PAAm as a novel smart superabsorbent hydrogel with low salt sensitivity. J Biomater Sci Polym Edn 15:1499–1511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Haque MO, Mondal MIH (2016) Synthesis and characterization of cellulose-based eco-friendly hydrogels. J Sci Eng 44:45–53Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tanaka T (1981) Gels. Sci Am 244(1):124–136, 138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhao W, Jin X, Cong Y, Liu Y, Fu J (2013) Degradable natural polymer hydrogels for articular cartilage tissue engineering. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 88(3):327–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ahmed EM (2015) Hydrogel: preparation, characterization and applications. J Adv Res 6(2):105–121CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yang L, Chu JS, Fix JA (2002) Colon-specific drug delivery: new approaches and in vitro/in vivo evaluation. Int J Pharm 235:1–15CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Maolin Z, Jun L, Min Y, Hongfei H (2000) The swelling behaviour of radiation prepared semi-interpenetrating polymer networks composed of polyNIPAAm and hydrophilic polymers. Radiat Phys Chem 58:397–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tabata Y (2009) Biomaterial technology for tissue engineering applications. J R Soc Interf 6:S311–S324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shantha KL, Harding DRK (2002) Synthesis and evaluation of sucrose-containing polymeric hydrogels for oral drug delivery. J Appl Polym Sci 84:2597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Watanabe N, Hosoya Y, Tamura A, Kosuge H (1993) Characteristics of water-absorbent polymer emulsions. Polym Inter 30:525–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tong Q, Zhang G (2005) Rapid synthesis of a superabsorbent from a saponified starch and acrylonitrile/AMPS graft copolymers. Carbohydr Polym 62:74–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chen H, Fan M (2008) Novel thermally sensitive pH-dependent chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogels. J Bioact Compat Polym 23(1):38–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sarkar N (1979) Thermal gelation properties of methyl and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. J Appl Polym Sci 24(4):1073–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chen C, Tsai C, Chen W, Mi F, Liang H, Chen S, Sung H (2006) Novel living cell sheet harvest system composed of thermoreversible methylcellulose hydrogels. Biomacromolecules 7(3):736–743CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stabenfeldt SE, Garcia AJ, LaPlaca MC (2006) Thermoreversible laminin-functionalized hydrogel for neural tissue engineering. J Biomed Mater Res A 77(4):718–725CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vinatier C, Magne D, Moreau A, Gauthier O, Malard O, Vignes-Colombeix C, Daculsi G, Weiss P, Guicheux J (2007) Engineering cartilage with human nasal chondrocytes and a silanized hydroxypropyl methylcellulose hydrogel. J Biomed Mater Res A 80(1):66–74CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Charlesby A (1955) The degradation of cellulose by ionizing radiation. J Polym Sci 5(79):263–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liu P, Peng J, Li J, Wu J (2005) Radiation crosslinking of CMC-Na at low dose and its application as substitute for hydrogels. Rad Phys Chem 72(5):635–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Buchholz FL, Graham AT (1998) Modern superabsorbent polymer technology. Wiley-VCH, New York, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dayal U, Mehta SK, Choudhari MS, Jain R (1999) Synthesis of acrylic superabsorbents. J Macromol Sci-Rev Macromol Chem Phys 39:507–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Masuda F (1994) Trends in the development of superabsorbent polymers for diapers. ACS Symp Ser 573(7):88–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Market sand Markets (2015) Annually published premium market research reports. UNIT no 802, Tower no. 7, SEZ Magarpatta city, Hadapsar Pune, Maharashtra 411013, India 1-888-600-6441. https://www.marketsandmarkets.com. Accessed 10 Nov 2017
  34. 34.
    Transparency Market Research report (2017) Hydrogel market (structure – amorphous, semi-crystalline, crystalline; product – polyacrylate, polyacrylamide, and silicone; application – personal care and hygiene, pharmaceuticals, food, agriculture, and healthcare) – global industry analysis, size, share, growth, trends, and forecast 2017–2025. Website: https://www.transparencymarketresearch.com. Accessed 23 Dec 2017
  35. 35.
    Richer C (2016) Richer investment adult incontinence products: an unfinished business, geotextiles report. www.highbeam.com. Accessed 25 Oct 2017
  36. 36.
    Cosmetics (1988) Development, manufacture and use of cosmetic materials, Kap. 6: Hygienemittel. www.mum.org. Accessed 18 Dec 2017
  37. 37.
    Credence Research (2017) Female hygiene products market – growth, future prospects & competitive analysis, 2017–2025. http://www.credenceresearch.com. Accessed 20 Dec 2017
  38. 38.
    Akin F, Spraker M, Aly R, Leyden J, Raynor W, Landin W (2001) Effects of breathable disposable diapers: reduced prevalence of Candida and common diaper dermatitis. Pediatr Dermatol 18(4):282–290CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Adalat S, Wall D, Goodyear H (2007) Diaper dermatitis-frequency and contributory factors in hospital attending children. Pediatr Dermatol 24(5):483–488CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Davis JA, Leyden JJ, Grove GL, Raynor WJ (1989) Comparison of disposable diapers with fluff absorbent and fluff plus absorbent polymers: effects on skin hydration, skin pH, and diaper dermatitis. Pediatr Dermatol 6(2):102–108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bartlett BL (1994) Disposable diaper recycling process. US Patent 5292075Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Demitri C, Del Sole R, Scalera F, Sannino A, Vasapollo G, Maffezzoli A, Ambrosio L, Nicolais L (2008) Novel superabsorbent cellulose-based hydrogels crosslinked with citric acid. J Appl Polym Sci 110(4):2453–2460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lenzi F, Sannino A, Borriello A, Porro F, Capitani D, Mensitieri G (2003) Probing the degree of crosslinking of a cellulose based superabsorbing hydrogel through traditional and NMR techniques. Polymer 44(5):1577–1588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sannino A, Esposito A, De Rosa A, Cozzolino A, Ambrosio L, Nicolais L (2003) Biomedical application of a superabsorbent hydrogel for body water elimination in the treatment of edemas. J Biomed Mater Res 67A:1016–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ferrero C, Massuelle D, Jeannerat D, Doelker E (2008) Towards elucidation of the drug release mechanism from compressed hydrophilic matrices made of cellulose ethers. I. Pulse-field-gradient spin-echo NMR study of sodium salicylate diffusivity in swollen hydrogels with respect to polymer matrix physical structure. J Control Release 128(1):71–79CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gupta PN, Pattani A, Curran RM, Kett VL, Andrews GP, Morrow RJ, Woolfson AD, Malcolm RK (2012) Development of liposome gel based formulations for intravaginal delivery of the recombinant HIV-1 envelope protein CN54gp140. Eur J Pharm Sci 46(5):315–322CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wang CY, Ho HO, Lin LH, Lin YK, Sheu MT (2005) Asymmetric membrane capsules for delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs by osmotic effects. Int J Pharm 297(1–2):89–97CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sannino A, Madaghiele M, Lionetto MG, Schettino T, Maffezzoli A (2006) A cellulose-based hydrogel as a potential bulking agent for hypocaloric diets: an in vitro biocompatibility study on rat intestine. J Appl Polym Sci 102(2):1524–1530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Larsson M, Hjärtstam J, Berndtsson J, Stading M, Larsson A (2010) Effect of ethanol on the water permeability of controlled release films composed of ethyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl cellulose. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 76(3):428–432CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Diaper Rash –Web MD (2016). https://www.webmd.com. Accessed 15 Oct 2017
  51. 51.
    Swish: Sustainable diaper cleaning system (2012). https://www.behance.net. Accessed 15 Oct 2017
  52. 52.
    Ross P, Mayer R, Benziman M (1991) Cellulose biosynthesis and function in bacteria. Microbiol Rev 55(1):35–58PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Tomsic B, Simoncic B, Orel B, Vilcnik A, Spreizer H (2007) Biodegradability of cellulose fabric modified by imidazolidinone. Carbohydr Polym 69(3):478–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Martson M, Viljanto J, Hurme T, Laippala P, Saukko P (1999) Is cellulose sponge degradable or stable as implantation material? An in vivo subcutaneous study in the rat. Biomaterials 20(21):1989–1995CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sannino A, Pappadà S, Madaghiele M, Maffezzoli A, Ambrosio L, Nicolais L (2005) Crosslinking of cellulose derivatives and hyaluronic acid with water-soluble carbodiimide. Polymer 46(25):11206–11212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ito T, Yeo Y, Highley CB, Bellas E, Benitez CA, Kohane DS (2007) The prevention of peritoneal adhesions by in situ cross-linking hydrogels of hyaluronic acid and cellulose derivatives. Biomaterials 28(6):975–983CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Esposito F, Del Nobile MA, Mensitieri M, Nicolais L (1996) Water sorption in cellulose-based hydrogels. J Appl Polym Sci 60(13):2403–2407CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Polymer and Textile Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringUniversity of RajshahiRajshahiBangladesh

Personalised recommendations