Cellulose-Based Hydrogel Films for Food Packaging Living reference work entry First Online: 06 June 2018
Part of the
Polymers and Polymeric Composites: A Reference Series
book series (POPOC) Abstract
The use of fossil-based plastic in food packaging has increased the plastic-based waste, carbon footprint, and global warming, which has led to the development of alternatives such as hydrogels for biodegradable stringent food packaging industries. Hydrogels consist of biopolymers having three dimensional networks can trap a large quantity of water and formulation of cellulose-based hydrogels have laid high impact for food packaging application with improved biodegradability, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, plasticizing effect, etc. Cellulose hydrogels can be imparted as thin layers onto the polymers to improve its wettability, appearance, degradability, and resistance towards environmental agents. Cellulose-based hydrogels are mainly formulated from cellulose, bacterial cellulose, and its derivatives. Further, use of cellulose and its derivatives with gelatin, low-methoxyl pectin, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), protein, etc., provide a better property for packaging food products. Various bioactive compounds such as silver nanoparticles and other antioxidants, antifungal agents can be embedded onto hydrogel films to improve its properties. Use of cellulose hydrogel as packaging material mainly depends on its hydrophilicity, swelling property, molecular weight, stability, physical, mechanical and chemical properties. Cellulose hydrogels generally consist of various chemistry of hydrogels such as physical cross-linking, chemical cross-linking, interpenetrating hydrogels, which find significant importance in biodegradable food packaging. Dry hydrogels from biopolymers can be used individually or in conjugate with others. However, use of individual polymers for making hydrogel creates problems in hydration which enhance water-polymer interactions than polymer-polymer interactions. In contrast, blending and composites of polymers help in enhancing interactions between polymer-polymer matrices than water-polymer matrices. The tailored properties of blends or composites of hydrogel can be formed through electrostatic interactions between opposite charges, formation of cross-links through covalent bond, formation of physical networks, and interpenetrating polymer networks.
Keywords Cellulose Cellulose derivatives Hydrogel Biodegradability Food packaging References
Almasi H, Ghanbarzadeh B, Entezami AA (2010) Physicochemical properties of starch–CMC–nanoclay biodegradable films. Int J Biol Macromol 46:1–5.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2009.10.001 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Alves V, Costa N, Hilliou L, Larotonda F, Gonçalves M, Sereno A, Coelhoso I (2006) Design of biodegradable composite films for food packaging. Desalination 199:331–333.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2006.03.078 CrossRef Google Scholar
An J, Zhang M, Wang S, Tang J (2008) Physical, chemical and microbiological changes in stored green asparagus spears as affected by coating of silver nanoparticles-PVP. LWT – Food Sci Technol 41:1100–1107.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2007.06.019 CrossRef Google Scholar
Andrady AL, Neal MA (2009) Applications and societal benefits of plastics. Phil Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 364:1977–1984.
https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0304 CrossRef Google Scholar
Babu RP, O’Connor K, Seeram R (2013) Current progress on bio-based polymers and their future trends. Prog Biomater 2:8.
https://doi.org/10.1186/2194-0517-2-8 CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Bergmann M, Flance IJ, Cruz PT, Klam N, Aronson PR, Joshi RA, Blumenthal HT (1962) Thesaurosis due to inhalation of hair spray. N Engl J Med 266:750–755.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM196204122661503 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Bhardwaj U, Dhar P, Kumar A, Katiyar V (2014) Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)-cellulose based Nanobiocomposites for food packaging applications. In: Food additives and packaging. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 275–314
Biswal DR, Singh RP (2004) Characterisation of carboxymethyl cellulose and polyacrylamide graft copolymer. Carbohydr Polym 57:379–387.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2004.04.020 CrossRef Google Scholar
Capitani D, Crescenzi V, Segre AL (2001) Water in hydrogels. An NMR study of water/polymer interactions in weakly cross-linked chitosan networks. Macromolecules 34:4136–4144.
https://doi.org/10.1021/ma002109x CrossRef Google Scholar
Chang C, Zhang L (2011) Cellulose-based hydrogels: present status and application prospects. Carbohydr Polym 84:40–53.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.12.023 CrossRef Google Scholar
Cunha AG, Gandini A (2010) Turning polysaccharides into hydrophobic materials: a critical review. Part 2. Hemicelluloses, chitin/chitosan, starch, pectin and alginates. Cellulose 17:1045–1065.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-010-9435-5 CrossRef Google Scholar
Cutter CN (2006) Opportunities for bio-based packaging technologies to improve the quality and safety of fresh and further processed muscle foods. Meat Sci 74:131–142.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.04.023 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Davis G, Song JH (2006) Biodegradable packaging based on raw materials from crops and their impact on waste management. Ind Crop Prod 23:147–161.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2005.05.004 CrossRef Google Scholar
Dhar P, Bhardwaj U, Kumar A, Katiyar V (2014) Cellulose nanocrystals: a potential Nanofiller for food packaging applications. In: Food additives and packaging. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 197–239
Du X, He J (2008) Facile size-controllable syntheses of highly monodisperse polystyrene nano- and microspheres by polyvinylpyrrolidone-mediated emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization. J Appl Polym Sci 108:1755–1760.
https://doi.org/10.1002/app.27774 CrossRef Google Scholar
Farris S, Schaich KM, Liu L, Piergiovanni L, Yam KL (2009) Development of polyion-complex hydrogels as an alternative approach for the production of bio-based polymers for food packaging applications: a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 20:316–332.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2009.04.003 CrossRef Google Scholar
Farris S, Schaich KM, Liu L, Cooke PH, PiergiovanniL YKL (2011) Gelatin–pectin composite films from polyion-complex hydrogels. Food Hydrocoll 25:61–70.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2010.05.006 CrossRef Google Scholar
Fredriksson H, Silverio J, Andersson R, Eliasson AC, Åman P (1998) The influence of amylose and amylopectin characteristics on gelatinization and retrogradation properties of different starches. Carbohydr Polym 35:119–134.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8617(97)00247-6 CrossRef Google Scholar
Frushour BG, Koenig JL (1975) Raman scattering of collagen, gelatin, and elastin. Biopolymers 14:379–391.
https://doi.org/10.1002/bip.1975.360140211 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Fuse T, Goto F (1971) Studies on utilization of agar. Agric Biol Chem 35:799–804.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00021369.1971.10859998 CrossRef Google Scholar
Gordon RS (1958) The preparation of radioactive polyvinylpyrrolidone for medical use. J Polym Sci 31:191–192.
https://doi.org/10.1002/pol.1958.1203112225 CrossRef Google Scholar
Gregorova A, Saha N, Kitano T, Saha P (2015) Hydrothermal effect and mechanical stress properties of carboxymethylcellulose based hydrogel food packaging. Carbohydr Polym 117:559–568.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.10.009 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Guan YL, Shao L, Yao KD (1996) A study on correlation between water state and swelling kinetics of chitosan-based hydrogels. J Appl Polym Sci 61:2325–2335.
https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4628(19960926)61:13<2325::AID-APP11>3.0.CO CrossRef Google Scholar
Haaf F, Sanner A, Straub F (1985) Polymers of N-vinylpyrrolidone: synthesis, characterization and uses. Polym J 17:143–152.
https://doi.org/10.1295/polymj.17.143 CrossRef Google Scholar
Harvath L, Falk W, Leonard EJ (1980) Rapid quantitation of neutrophil chemotaxis: use of a polyvinylpyrrolidone-free polycarbonate membrane in a multiwell assembly. J Immunol Methods 37:39–45.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1759(80)90179-9 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Hoover R (2001) Composition, molecular structure, and physicochemical properties of tuber and root starches: a review. Carbohydr Polym 45:253–267.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8617(00)00260-5 CrossRef Google Scholar
Humbert S, Rossi V, Margni M, Jolliet O, Loerincik Y (2009) Life cycle assessment of two baby food packaging alternatives: glass jars vs. plastic pots. Int J Life Cycle Assess 14:95–106.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-008-0052-6 CrossRef Google Scholar
Incoronato AL, Conte A, Buonocore GG, Del Nobile MA (2011) Agar hydrogel with silver nanoparticles to prolong the shelf life of Fior di latte cheese. J Dairy Sci 94:1697–1704.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3823 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Iwata T (2015) Biodegradable and bio-based polymers: future prospects of eco-friendly plastics. Angew Chem Int Ed 54:3210–3215.
https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201410770 CrossRef Google Scholar
Jin L, Bai R (2002) Mechanisms of lead adsorption on chitosan/PVA hydrogel beads. Langmuir 18:9765–9770.
https://doi.org/10.1021/la025917l CrossRef Google Scholar
Kim H-S, Yang H-S, Kim H-J (2005) Biodegradability and mechanical properties of agro-flour–filled polybutylene succinate biocomposites. J Appl Polym Sci 97:1513–1521.
https://doi.org/10.1002/app.21905 CrossRef Google Scholar
Klemm D, Heublein B, Fink H-P, Bohn A (2005) Cellulose: fascinating biopolymer and sustainable raw material. Angew Chem Int Ed 44:3358–3393.
https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200460587 CrossRef Google Scholar
Koenig MF, Huang SJ (1995) Biodegradable blends and composites of polycaprolactone and starch derivatives. Polymer 36:1877–1882.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-3861(95)90934-T CrossRef Google Scholar
Kulkarni RK, Moore EG, Hegyeli AF, Leonard F (1971) Biodegradable poly(lactic acid) polymers. J Biomed Mater Res 5:169–181.
https://doi.org/10.1002/jbm.820050305 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Langmaier F, Mokrejs P, Kolomaznik K, Mladek M (2008) Biodegradable packing materials from hydrolysates of collagen waste proteins. Waste Manag 28:549–556.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2007.02.003 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Lithner D, Larsson Å, Dave G (2011) Environmental and health hazard ranking and assessment of plastic polymers based on chemical composition. Sci Total Environ 409:3309–3324.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.04.038 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Maftoonazad N, Badii F (2009) Use of edible films and coatings to extend the shelf life of food products. Recent Pat Food Nutr Agric 1:162–170
CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Makino Y, Hirata T (1997) Modified atmosphere packaging of fresh produce with a biodegradable laminate of chitosan-cellulose and polycaprolactone. Postharvest Biol Technol 10:247–254.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(96)01402-0 CrossRef Google Scholar
Mansur HS, Oréfice RL, Mansur AAP (2004) Characterization of poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels and PVA-derived hybrids by small-angle X-ray scattering and FTIR spectroscopy. Polymer 45:7193–7202.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2004.08.036 CrossRef Google Scholar
Mansur HS, Sadahira CM, Souza AN, Mansur AAP (2008) FTIR spectroscopy characterization of poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel with different hydrolysis degree and chemically crosslinked with glutaraldehyde. Mater Sci Eng C 28:539–548.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2007.10.088 CrossRef Google Scholar
Marcì G, Mele G, Palmisano L, Pulito P, Sannino A (2006) Environmentally sustainable production of cellulose-based superabsorbent hydrogels. Green Chem 8:439–444.
https://doi.org/10.1039/B515247J CrossRef Google Scholar
Marsh K, Bugusu B (2007) Food packaging – roles, materials, and environmental issues. J Food Sci 72:R39–R55.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00301.x CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
McPherson AE, Jane J (1999) Comparison of waxy potato with other root and tuber starches. Carbohydr Polym 40:57–70.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8617(99)00039-9 CrossRef Google Scholar
Miles MJ, Morris VJ, Orford PD, Ring SG (1985) The roles of amylose and amylopectin in the gelation and retrogradation of starch. Carbohydr Res 135:271–281.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6215(00)90778-X CrossRef Google Scholar
Mohanty AK, Misra M, Drzal LT (2002) Sustainable bio-composites from renewable resources: opportunities and challenges in the green materials world. J Polym Environ 10:19–26.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021013921916 CrossRef Google Scholar
Morrison WR, Laignelet B (1983) An improved colorimetric procedure for determining apparent and total amylose in cereal and other starches. J Cereal Sci 1:9–20.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0733-5210(83)80004-6 CrossRef Google Scholar
Mu C, Guo J, Li X, Lin W, Li D (2012) Preparation and properties of dialdehydecarboxymethyl cellulose crosslinked gelatin edible films. Food Hydrocoll 27:22–29.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2011.09.005 CrossRef Google Scholar
Muppalla SR, Kanatt SR, Chawla SP, Sharma A (2014) Carboxymethyl cellulose–polyvinyl alcohol films with clove oil for active packaging of ground chicken meat. Food Packag Shelf Life 2:51–58.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fpsl.2014.07.002 CrossRef Google Scholar
Myung D, Waters D, Wiseman M, Duhamel PE, Noolandi J, Ta CN, Frank CW (2008) Progress in the development of interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels. Polym Adv Technol 19:647–657.
https://doi.org/10.1002/pat.1134 CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Nguyen MK, Lee DS (2010) Injectable biodegradable hydrogels. Macromol Biosci 10:563–579.
https://doi.org/10.1002/mabi.200900402 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Niculescu M, Nistor C, Frébort I, Peč P, Mattiasson B, Csöregi E (2000) Redox hydrogel-based amperometric bienzyme electrodes for fish freshness monitoring. Anal Chem 72:1591–1597.
https://doi.org/10.1021/ac990848 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Ough CS (1960) Gelatin and Polyvinylpyrrolidone compared for fining red wines. Am J Enol Vitic 11:170–173
Oun AA, Rhim J-W (2015) Preparation and characterization of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose/cotton linter cellulose nanofibril composite films. Carbohydr Polym 127:101–109.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.03.073 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Page BD, Lacroix GM (1992) Studies into the transfer and migration of phthalate esters from aluminium foil-paper laminates to butter and margarine. Food Addit Contam 9:197–212.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02652039209374064 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Pavlovic S, Brandao PRG (2003) Adsorption of starch, amylose, amylopectin and glucose monomer and their effect on the flotation of hematite and quartz. Miner Eng 16:1117–1122.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mineng.2003.06.011 CrossRef Google Scholar
Peelman N, Ragaert P, De Meulenaer B, Adons D, Peeters R, Cardon L, Van Impe V, Devlieghere F (2013) Application of bioplastics for food packaging. Trends Food Sci Technol 32:128–141.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2013.06.003 CrossRef Google Scholar
Pereira VA, de Arruda INQ, Stefani R (2015) Active chitosan/PVA films with anthocyanins from Brassica oleraceae (red cabbage) as time–temperature indicators for application in intelligent food packaging. Food Hydrocoll 43:180–188.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2014.05.014 CrossRef Google Scholar
Philip S, Keshavarz T, Roy I (2007) Polyhydroxyalkanoates: biodegradable polymers with a range of applications. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 82:233–247.
https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.1667 CrossRef Google Scholar
Poirier Y, Nawrath C, Somerville C (1995) Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates, a family of biodegradable plastics and elastomers, in bacteria and plants. Nat Biotechnol 13:142–150.
https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt0295-142 CrossRef Google Scholar
Reese ET, Siu RG, Levinson HS (1950) The biological degradation of soluble cellulose derivatives and its relationship to the mechanism of cellulose hydrolysis. J Bacteriol 59:485
PubMed PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Rhim J-W, Wang L-F (2013) Mechanical and water barrier properties of agar/κ-carrageenan/konjacglucomannan ternary blend biohydrogel films. Carbohydr Polym 96:71–81.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.03.083 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Rhim J-W, Park H-M, Ha C-S (2013) Bio-nanocomposites for food packaging applications. Prog Polym Sci 38:1629–1652.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2013.05.008 CrossRef Google Scholar
Roy N, Saha N, Kitano T, Saha P (2012) Biodegradation of PVP–CMC hydrogel film: a useful food packaging material. Carbohydr Polym 89:346–353.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.03.008 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Shi C, Zhu Y, Ran X, Wang M, Su Y, Cheng T (2006) Therapeutic potential of chitosan and its derivatives in regenerative Medicine1 1This work was supported by “973” programs on severe trauma (NO. 1999054205 and NO. 2005CB522605) from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China. J Surg Res 133:185–192.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2005.12.013 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Stadtman ER, Levine RL (2003) Free radical-mediated oxidation of free amino acids and amino acid residues in proteins. Amino Acids 25:207–218.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-003-0011-2 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Suyatma NE, Copinet A, Tighzert L, Coma V (2004) Mechanical and barrier properties of biodegradable films made from chitosan and poly (lactic acid) blends. J Polym Environ 12:1–6.
https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOOE.0000003121.12800.4e CrossRef Google Scholar
Tefera T, Kanampiu F, De Groote H, Hellin J, Mugo S, Kimenju S, Beyene Y, Boddupalli P, Shiferaw B, Banziger M (2011) The metal silo: an effective grain storage technology for reducing post-harvest insect and pathogen losses in maize while improving smallholder farmers’ food security in developing countries. Crop Prot 30:240–245.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2010.11.015 CrossRef Google Scholar
Tesfaye M, Patwa R, Kommadath R, Kotecha P, Katiyar V (2016) Silk nanocrystals stabilized melt extruded poly (lactic acid) nanocomposite films: effect of recycling on thermal degradation kinetics and optimization studies. Thermochim Acta 643:41–52.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2016.09.008 CrossRef Google Scholar
Triantafyllou VI, Akrida-Demertzi K, Demertzis PG (2002) Migration studies from recycled paper packaging materials: development of an analytical method for rapid testing. Anal Chim Acta 467:253–260.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(02)00189-7 CrossRef Google Scholar
Triantafyllou VI, Akrida-Demertzi K, Demertzis PG (2007) A study on the migration of organic pollutants from recycled paperboard packaging materials to solid food matrices. Food Chem 101:1759–1768.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.02.023 CrossRef Google Scholar
Vroman I, Tighzert L (2009) Biodegradable polymers. Materials 2:307–344.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma2020307 CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Wang T, Turhan M, Gunasekaran S (2004) Selected properties of pH-sensitive, biodegradable chitosan–poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel. Polym Int 53:911–918.
https://doi.org/10.1002/pi.1461 CrossRef Google Scholar
Weber CJ, Haugaard V, Festersen R, Bertelsen G (2002) Production and applications of biobased packaging materials for the food industry. Food Addit Contam 19:172–177.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030110087483 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Yen M-T, Yang J-H, Mau J-L (2009) Physicochemical characterization of chitin and chitosan from crab shells. Carbohydr Polym 75:15–21.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2008.06.006 CrossRef Google Scholar
Yoshida H, Hatakeyama T, Hatakeyama H (1993) Characterization of water in polysaccharide hydrogels by DSC. J Therm Anal Calorim 40:483–489.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02546617 CrossRef Google Scholar
Zhang Y, Tao L, Li S, Wei Y (2011) Synthesis of multiresponsive and dynamic chitosan-based hydrogels for controlled release of bioactive molecules. Biomacromolecules 12:2894–2901.
https://doi.org/10.1021/bm200423f CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Zhao C, Cheng H, Jiang P, Yao Y, Han J (2014) Preparation of lutein-loaded particles for improving solubility and stability by Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as an emulsion-stabilizer. Food Chem 156:123–128.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.01.086 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Copyright information
© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018