Synthesis of Cellulose-Based Hydrogels: Preparation, Formation, Mixture, and Modification

  • Neslihan Kayra
  • Ali Özhan AytekinEmail author
Living reference work entry
Part of the Polymers and Polymeric Composites: A Reference Series book series (POPOC)


Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer, and it has been used in different areas because of its unique properties as various fibril structures and sizes that affect tensile characteristic of the polymer. To increase its features and/or add a new property to cellulose, preparation and modification methods have been deeply investigated and reported. This chapter is classified into four different sections: preparation, formation, mixture, and modifications of cellulose. The preparation method of cellulose (including bacterial cellulose) is important, because it directly effects to fibril formation and structure. In addition to this, depending on usage area, cellulose is necessary to prepare as whisker, fibril, and nano-formations to sustain desired polymer structure. To increase the targeted property of cellulose hydrogel, different kinds of polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol and polyethylene glycol are mixed with cellulose during the preparation of hydrogel. However, cellulose hydrogels still need to improve its physical abilities. Therefore, various modifications have been developed for cellulose and its hydrogel. The most fundamental derivatives are methyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, and carboxymethyl cellulose. In addition to this, in recent years, stimuli-responsive and superabsorbent polymers have become more popular. Swelling behavior of hydrogels can be changed by pH, temperature, composition of solvent, and electric field in stimuli-responsive polymers that are available to use in pharmaceutical, bioengineering, and tissue engineering areas. Superabsorbent hydrogels have the ability to absorb water up to several hundred times of their dried weight that can be used in bioengineering, agricultural, tissue engineering areas, and sanitary products. The reaction mechanisms and configurations of mixtures were clearly illustrated in this chapter. Groundbreaking and latest studies were discussed via the hydrogel properties based on analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), tensile at break, tensile stress, and Young’s modulus.


Cellulose Hydrogel Cellulose nanocrystal Cellulose nanofiber Cellulose derivatives 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biotechnology Graduate Program, Graduate School of Natural and Applied SciencesYeditepe UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Genetics and Bioengineering Department, Engineering FacultyYeditepe UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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