Advertisement

Palliative Care in Critically Ill Cancer Patients

  • Ali HaiderEmail author
  • Ahsan Azhar
  • Kevin Madden
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Critically ill cancer patients who are at risk of dying often experience distressing physical, psychosocial, and spiritual symptoms. Provision of specialized palliative care services to these patients and their families is associated with improved quality of life, higher completion of advance directives, increased utilization of hospice care, and decreased use of non-beneficial life-prolonging interventions. In this chapter, we have discussed the management of most common physical symptoms experienced by critically ill patients such as pain, dyspnea, delirium, and thirst. Other topics discussed in this chapter are related to the integration of palliative care and its associated barriers, communication, spiritual care, family meetings, withdrawing and withholding medical technology, impending death, and anticipatory guidance.

Keywords

Palliative care Supportive care Intensive care unit End of life Advanced cancer 

References

  1. 1.
    Angus DC, Truog RD. Toward better ICU use at the end of life. JAMA. 2016;315(3):255–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Angus DC, Barnato AE, Linde-Zwirble WT, et al. Use of intensive care at the end of life in the United States: an epidemiologic study. Crit Care Med. 2004;32(3): 638–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Myburgh J, Abillama F, Chiumello D, et al. End-of-life care in the intensive care unit: report from the Task Force of World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine. J Crit Care. 2016;34:125–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Downar J, Delaney JW, Hawryluck L, Kenny L. Guidelines for the withdrawal of life-sustaining measures. Intensive Care Med. 2016;42(6):1003–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Truog RD, Campbell ML, Curtis JR, et al. Recommendations for end-of-life care in the intensive care unit: a consensus statement by the American College [corrected] of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med. 2008;36(3):953–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Palliative Care. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/palliative-care. Accessed 11 Nov 2018.
  7. 7.
    van den Beuken-van Everdingen MHJ, Hochstenbach LMJ, Joosten EAJ, Tjan-Heijnen VCG, Janssen DJA. Update on prevalence of pain in patients with cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2016;51(6): 1070–1090.e9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Delgado-Guay M, Parsons HA, Li Z, Palmer JL, Bruera E. Symptom distress in advanced cancer patients with anxiety and depression in the palliative care setting. Support Care Cancer. 2009;17(5):573–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Delgado-Guay MO, Chisholm G, Williams J, Frisbee-Hume S, Ferguson AO, Bruera E. Frequency, intensity, and correlates of spiritual pain in advanced cancer patients assessed in a supportive/palliative care clinic. Palliat Support Care. 2015;14:341–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kroenke K, Theobald D, Wu J, Loza JK, Carpenter JS, Tu W. The association of depression and pain with health-related quality of life, disability, and health care use in cancer patients. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2010;40(3):327–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nelson JE, Meier DE, Oei EJ, et al. Self-reported symptom experience of critically ill cancer patients receiving intensive care. Crit Care Med. 2001;29(2): 277–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Delgado-Guay MO, Parsons HA, Li Z, Palmer LJ, Bruera E. Symptom distress, interventions, and outcomes of intensive care unit cancer patients referred to a palliative care consult team. Cancer. 2009;115(2): 437–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McAdam JL, Dracup KA, White DB, Fontaine DK, Puntillo KA. Symptom experiences of family members of intensive care unit patients at high risk for dying. Crit Care Med. 2010;38(4):1078–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mercadante S, Gregoretti C, Cortegiani A. Palliative care in intensive care units: why, where, what, who, when, how. BMC Anesthesiol. 2018;18(1):106.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Aslakson R, Cheng J, Vollenweider D, Galusca D, Smith TJ, Pronovost PJ. Evidence-based palliative care in the intensive care unit: a systematic review of interventions. J Palliat Med. 2014;17(2):219–35.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Aslakson RA, Curtis JR, Nelson JE. The changing role of palliative care in the ICU. Crit Care Med. 2014;42(11):2418–28.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mosenthal AC, Weissman DE, Curtis JR, et al. Integrating palliative care in the surgical and trauma intensive care unit: a report from the Improving Palliative Care in the Intensive Care Unit (IPAL-ICU) Project Advisory Board and the Center to Advance Palliative Care. Crit Care Med. 2012;40(4): 1199–206.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bruera E, Kuehn N, Miller MJ, Selmser P, Macmillan K. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS): a simple method for the assessment of palliative care patients. J Palliat Care. 1991;7(2): 6–9.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Richardson LA, Jones GW. A review of the reliability and validity of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System. Curr Oncol (Toronto, Ont). 2009;16(1):55.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Puntillo KA, Neuhaus J, Arai S, et al. Challenge of assessing symptoms in seriously ill intensive care unit patients: can proxy reporters help? Crit Care Med. 2012;40(10):2760–7.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Payen JF, Bru O, Bosson JL, et al. Assessing pain in critically ill sedated patients by using a behavioral pain scale. Crit Care Med. 2001;29(12):2258–63.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dale CM, Prendergast V, Gelinas C, Rose L. Validation of the Critical-care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT) for the detection of oral-pharyngeal pain in critically ill adults. J Crit Care. 2018;48:334–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gelinas C, Fillion L, Puntillo KA, Viens C, Fortier M. Validation of the critical-care pain observation tool in adult patients. Am J Crit Care. 2006;15(4):420–7.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Campbell ML. Fear and pulmonary stress behaviors to an asphyxial threat across cognitive states. Res Nurs Health. 2007;30(6):572–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Herr K, Coyne PJ, Key T, et al. Pain assessment in the nonverbal patient: position statement with clinical practice recommendations. Pain Manag Nurs. 2006;7(2):44–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Puntillo K, Pasero C, Li D, et al. Evaluation of pain in ICU patients. Chest. 2009;135(4):1069–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Loeser JD, Treede RD. The Kyoto protocol of IASP basic pain terminology. Pain. 2008;137(3):473–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Te Boveldt N, Vernooij-Dassen M, Burger N, Ijsseldijk M, Vissers K, Engels Y. Pain and its interference with daily activities in medical oncology outpatients. Pain Physician. 2013;16(4):379–89.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Goldberg GR, Morrison RS. Pain management in hospitalized cancer patients: a systematic review. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(13):1792–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bruera E. Parenteral opioid shortage – treating pain during the opioid-overdose epidemic. N Engl J Med. 2018;379:601–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dalal S, Tanco KC, Bruera E. State of art of managing pain in patients with cancer. Cancer J. 2013;19(5): 379–89.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Devlin JW, Skrobik Y, Gelinas C, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of pain, agitation/sedation, delirium, immobility, and sleep disruption in adult patients in the ICU. Crit Care Med. 2018;46(9):e825–73.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Caraceni A, Hanks G, Kaasa S, et al. Use of opioid analgesics in the treatment of cancer pain: evidence-based recommendations from the EAPC. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(2):e58–68.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mercadante S. The use of rapid onset opioids for breakthrough cancer pain: the challenge of its dosing. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2011;80(3):460–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mercadante S. Intravenous morphine for management of cancer pain. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11(5):484–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bruera E, Elsayem A. The MD Anderson symptom control and palliative care handbook. Houston: University of Health Science Center at Houston; 2015.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Azhar A, Kim YJ, Haider A, et al. Response to oral immediate-release opioids for breakthrough pain in patients with advanced cancer with adequately controlled background pain. Oncologist. 2018;24:125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hollingsworth H, Herndon C. The parenteral opioid shortage: causes and solutions. J Opioid Manag. 2018;14(2):81–2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Davis MP, McPherson ML, Mehta Z, Behm B, Fernandez C. What parenteral opioids to use in face of shortages of morphine, hydromorphone, and fentanyl. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2018;35(8):1118–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    American Thoracic Society. Dyspnea. Mechanisms, assessment, and management: a consensus statement. American Thoracic Society. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;159(1): 321–40.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pisani L, Hill NS, Pacilli AMG, Polastri M, Nava S. Management of dyspnea in the terminally ill. Chest. 2018;154(4):925–34.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Barnes H, McDonald J, Smallwood N, Manser R. Opioids for the palliation of refractory breathlessness in adults with advanced disease and terminal illness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;3:CD011008.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Currow DC, Smith J, Davidson PM, Newton PJ, Agar MR, Abernethy AP. Do the trajectories of dyspnea differ in prevalence and intensity by diagnosis at the end of life? A consecutive cohort study. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2010;39(4):680–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mularski RA, Heine CE, Osborne ML, Ganzini L, Curtis JR. Quality of dying in the ICU: ratings by family members. Chest. 2005;128(1):280–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jennings AL, Davies AN, Higgins JP, Gibbs JS, Broadley KE. A systematic review of the use of opioids in the management of dyspnoea. Thorax. 2002;57(11):939–44.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mahler DA. Opioids for refractory dyspnea. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2013;7(2):123–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Currow DC, McDonald C, Oaten S, et al. Once-daily opioids for chronic dyspnea: a dose increment and pharmacovigilance study. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2011;42(3):388–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kallaur AP, Lopes J, Oliveira SR, et al. Immune-inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress biomarkers of depression symptoms in subjects with multiple sclerosis: increased peripheral inflammation but less acute neuroinflammation. Mol Neurobiol. 2015;53:5191–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Puntillo K, Nelson JE, Weissman D, et al. Palliative care in the ICU: relief of pain, dyspnea, and thirst – a report from the IPAL-ICU Advisory Board. Intensive Care Med. 2014;40(2):235–48.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Simon ST, Higginson IJ, Booth S, Harding R, Bausewein C. Benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in advanced malignant and non-malignant diseases in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(1):CD007354.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lossignol D. A little help from steroids in oncology. J Transl Int Med. 2016;4(1):52–4.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hui D, Kilgore K, Frisbee-Hume S, et al. Dexamethasone for dyspnea in cancer patients: a pilot double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2016;52(1):8–16.e11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wilcock A, Walton A, Manderson C, et al. Randomised, placebo controlled trial of nebulised furosemide for breathlessness in patients with cancer. Thorax. 2008;63(10):872–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hui D, Morgado M, Chisholm G, et al. High-flow oxygen and bilevel positive airway pressure for persistent dyspnea in patients with advanced cancer: a phase II randomized trial. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2013;46(4):463–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Coyle M, Shergis J, Huang ETY, et al. Acupuncture therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials. Altern Ther Health Med. 2014;20(6):10–23.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lai WS, Chao CSC, Yang WP, Chen CH. Efficacy of guided imagery with theta music for advanced cancer patients with dyspnea: a pilot study. Biol Res Nurs. 2010;12(2):188–97.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Schwartzstein RM, Lahive K, Pope A, Weinberger SE, Weiss JW. Cold facial stimulation reduces breathlessness induced in normal subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987;136(1):58–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Galbraith S, Fagan P, Perkins P, Lynch A, Booth S. Does the use of a handheld fan improve chronic dyspnea? A randomized, controlled, crossover trial. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2010;39(5):831–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    European Delirium Association, American Delirium Society. The DSM-5 criteria, level of arousal and delirium diagnosis: inclusiveness is safer. BMC Med. 2014;12(1):141.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Salluh JIF, Wang H, Schneider EB, et al. Outcome of delirium in critically ill patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2015;350:h2538.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bovine Genome S, Analysis C, Elsik CG, et al. The genome sequence of taurine cattle: a window to ruminant biology and evolution. Science. 2009;324(5926):522–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Meagher DJ, O’Hanlon D, O’Mahony E, Casey PR, Trzepacz PT. Relationship between symptoms and motoric subtype of delirium. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2000;12(1):51–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Meagher D. Motor subtypes of delirium: past, present and future. Int Rev Psychiatry (Abingdon, England). 2009;21(1):59–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Breitbart W, Rosenfeld B, Roth A, Smith MJ, Cohen K, Passik S. The memorial delirium assessment scale. J Pain Symptom Manag. 1997;13(3): 128–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ely EW, Margolin R, Francis J, et al. Evaluation of delirium in critically ill patients: validation of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU). Crit Care Med. 2001;29(7): 1370–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Adamis D, Slor CJ, Leonard M, et al. Reliability of delirium rating scale (DRS) and delirium rating scale-revised-98 (DRS-R98) using variance-based multivariate modelling. J Psychiatr Res. 2013;47(7): 966–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Trzepacz PT, Baker RW, Greenhouse J. A symptom rating scale for delirium. Psychiatry Res. 1988;23(1): 89–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gusmao-Flores D, Salluh JI, Chalhub RA, Quarantini LC. The confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit (CAM-ICU) and intensive care delirium screening checklist (ICDSC) for the diagnosis of delirium: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical studies. Crit Care. 2012;16(4):R115.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Neto AS, Nassar AP Jr, Cardoso SO, et al. Delirium screening in critically ill patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 2012;40(6): 1946–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bannon L, McGaughey J, Clarke M, McAuley DF, Blackwood B. Impact of non-pharmacological interventions on prevention and treatment of delirium in critically ill patients: protocol for a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative research. Syst Rev. 2016;5:75.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hshieh TT, Yue J, Oh E, et al. Effectiveness of multicomponent nonpharmacological delirium interventions: a meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(4):512–20.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Martinez F, Tobar C, Hill N. Preventing delirium: should non-pharmacological, multicomponent interventions be used? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Age Ageing. 2015;44(2): 196–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Siddiqi N, Harrison JK, Clegg A, et al. Interventions for preventing delirium in hospitalised non-ICU patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;3:CD005563.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Slooter AJC, Van De Leur RR, Zaal IJ. Chapter 25 – Delirium in critically ill patients. In: Wijdicks EFM, Kramer AH, editors. Handbook of clinical neurology, vol. 141. Elsevier; 2017. p. 449–66.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bruera E. Palliative sedation: when and how? J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(12):1258–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Davies AN, Broadley K, Beighton D. Xerostomia in patients with advanced cancer. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2001;22(4):820–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hanchanale S, Adkinson L, Daniel S, Fleming M, Oxberry SG. Systematic literature review: xerostomia in advanced cancer patients. Support Care Cancer. 2015;23(3):881–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Puntillo K, Arai SR, Cooper BA, Stotts NA, Nelson JE. A randomized clinical trial of an intervention to relieve thirst and dry mouth in intensive care unit patients. Intensive Care Med. 2014;40(9): 1295–302.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Puchalski C, Ferrell B, Virani R, et al. Improving the quality of spiritual care as a dimension of palliative care: the report of the Consensus Conference. J Palliat Med. 2009;12(10):885–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Balboni T, Balboni M, Paulk ME, et al. Support of cancer patients’ spiritual needs and associations with medical care costs at the end of life. Cancer. 2011;117(23):5383–91.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Silvestri GA, Knittig S, Zoller JS, Nietert PJ. Importance of faith on medical decisions regarding cancer care. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(7):1379–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Thune-Boyle IC, Stygall JA, Keshtgar MR, Newman SP. Do religious/spiritual coping strategies affect illness adjustment in patients with cancer? A systematic review of the literature. Soc Sci Med. 2006;63(1):151–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Puchalski CM. Spirituality in the cancer trajectory. Ann Oncol. 2012;23(Suppl 3):49–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Davidson JE, Aslakson RA, Long AC, et al. Guidelines for family-centered care in the neonatal, pediatric, and adult ICU. Crit Care Med. 2017;45(1): 103–28.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Davidson JE, Jones C, Bienvenu OJ. Family response to critical illness: postintensive care syndrome-family. Crit Care Med. 2012;40(2):618–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Edwards JD, Voigt LP, Nelson JE. Ten key points about ICU palliative care. Intensive Care Med. 2017;43(1):83–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Aslakson RA, Reinke LF, Cox C, Kross EK, Benzo RP, Curtis JR. Developing a research agenda for integrating palliative care into critical care and pulmonary practice to improve patient and family outcomes. J Palliat Med. 2017;20(4):329–43.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lind R, Lorem GF, Nortvedt P, Hevroy O. Family members’ experiences of “wait and see” as a communication strategy in end-of-life decisions. Intensive Care Med. 2011;37(7):1143–50.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Azhar A, Bruera E. Outcome measurement and complex physical, psychosocial and spiritual experiences of death and dying. Ann Palliat Med. 2018;7(Suppl 3):S231–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Bruera E, Higginson I, Von Gunten CF, Morita T. Textbook of palliative medicine. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group; 2015.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Dev R, Coulson L, Del Fabbro E, et al. A prospective study of family conferences: effects of patient presence on emotional expression and end-of-life discussions. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2013;46(4):536–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Del Ferraro C, Ferrell B, Van Zyl C, Freeman B, Klein L. Improving palliative cancer care. J Adv Pract Oncol. 2014;5(5):331–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ghesquiere A, Haidar YM, Shear MK. Risks for complicated grief in family caregivers. J Soc Work End Life Palliat Care. 2011;7(2–3):216–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Shear MK. Clinical practice. Complicated grief. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(2):153–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Shear MK, Ghesquiere A, Glickman K. Bereavement and complicated grief. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2013;15(11):406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Rhondali W, Dev R, Barbaret C, et al. Family conferences in palliative care: a survey of health care providers in France. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2014;48(6):1117–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Back AL, Arnold RM, Baile WF, Tulsky JA, Fryer-Edwards K. Approaching difficult communication tasks in oncology. CA Cancer J Clin. 2005;55(3): 164–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Baile WF, Buckman R, Lenzi R, Glober G, Beale EA, Kudelka AP. SPIKES-A six-step protocol for delivering bad news: application to the patient with cancer. Oncologist. 2000;5(4):302–11.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Bensing J. Doctor-patient communication and the quality of care. Soc Sci Med. 1991;32(11):1301–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Back AL, Anderson WG, Bunch L, et al. Communication about cancer near the end of life. Cancer. 2008;113(7 Suppl):1897–910.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Delbanco TL. Enriching the doctor-patient relationship by inviting the patient’s perspective. Ann Intern Med. 1992;116(5):414–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Marvel MK, Epstein RM, Flowers K, Beckman HB. Soliciting the patient’s agenda: have we improved? JAMA. 1999;281(3):283–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Selph RB, Shiang J, Engelberg R, Curtis JR, White DB. Empathy and life support decisions in intensive care units. J Gen Intern Med. 2008;23(9): 1311–7.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Nekolaichuk CL, Bruera E, Spachynski K, MacEachern T, Hanson J, Maguire TO. A comparison of patient and proxy symptom assessments in advanced cancer patients. Palliat Med. 1999;13(4): 311–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Nekolaichuk CL, Maguire TO, Suarez-Almazor M, Rogers WT, Bruera E. Assessing the reliability of patient, nurse, and family caregiver symptom ratings in hospitalized advanced cancer patients. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17(11):3621–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kim YJ, Hui D, Zhang Y, et al. Differences in performance status assessment among palliative care specialists, nurses, and medical oncologists. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2015;49(6):1050–1058.e1052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Zimmermann C, Burman D, Bandukwala S, et al. Nurse and physician inter-rater agreement of three performance status measures in palliative care outpatients. Support Care Cancer. 2010;18(5):609–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kristjanson LJ, Nikoletti S, Porock D, Smith M, Lobchuk M, Pedler P. Congruence between patients’ and family caregivers’ perceptions of symptom distress in patients with terminal cancer. J Palliat Care. 1998;14(3):24–32.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Yennurajalingam S, Parsons HA, Duarte ER, et al. Decisional control preferences of Hispanic patients with advanced cancer from the United States and Latin America. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2013;46(3): 376–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Delgado-Guay MO, Rodriguez-Nunez A, De la Cruz V, et al. Advanced cancer patients’ reported wishes at the end of life: a randomized controlled trial. Support Care Cancer. 2016;24(10):4273–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Rhondali W, Chirac A, Laurent A, Terra JL, Filbet M. Family caregivers’ perceptions of depression in patients with advanced cancer: a qualitative study. Palliat Support Care. 2015;13(3):443–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Tanco K, Park JC, Cerana A, Sisson A, Sobti N, Bruera E. A systematic review of instruments assessing dimensions of distress among caregivers of adult and pediatric cancer patients. Palliat Support Care. 2017;15(1):110–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Tanco K, Vidal M, Arthur J, et al. Testing the feasibility of using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) to assess caregiver symptom burden. Palliat Support Care. 2018;16(1):14–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Hui D, Bruera E. The Edmonton symptom assessment system 25 years later: past, present, and future developments. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2017;53(3): 630–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Levin TT, Moreno B, Silvester W, Kissane DW. End-of-life communication in the intensive care unit. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2010;32(4):433–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Needham DM, Davidson J, Cohen H, et al. Improving long-term outcomes after discharge from intensive care unit: report from a stakeholders’ conference. Crit Care Med. 2012;40(2):502–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Temel JS, Greer JA, Muzikansky A, et al. Early palliative care for patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(8):733–42.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hui D, Parsons H, Nguyen L, et al. Timing of palliative care referral and symptom burden in phase 1 cancer patients: a retrospective cohort study. Cancer. 2010;116(18):4402–9.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Temel JS, Greer JA, Admane S, et al. Longitudinal perceptions of prognosis and goals of therapy in patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: results of a randomized study of early palliative care. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(17):2319–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Davidson JE, Powers K, Hedayat KM, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for support of the family in the patient-centered intensive care unit: American College of Critical Care Medicine Task Force 2004–2005. Crit Care Med. 2007;35(2):605–22.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Lanken PN, Terry PB, Delisser HM, et al. An official American Thoracic Society clinical policy statement: palliative care for patients with respiratory diseases and critical illnesses. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;177(8):912–27.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Mularski RA, Curtis JR, Billings JA, et al. Proposed quality measures for palliative care in the critically ill: a consensus from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Critical Care Workgroup. Crit Care Med. 2006;34(11 Suppl):S404–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Thompson BT, Cox PN, Antonelli M, et al. Challenges in end-of-life care in the ICU: statement of the 5th international consensus conference in critical care: Brussels, Belgium, April 2003: executive summary. Crit Care Med. 2004;32(8):1781–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Hui D, Elsayem A, Palla S, et al. Discharge outcomes and survival of patients with advanced cancer admitted to an acute palliative care unit at a comprehensive cancer center. J Palliat Med. 2010;13(1):49–57.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Braiteh F, El Osta B, Palmer JL, Reddy SK, Bruera E. Characteristics, findings, and outcomes of palliative care inpatient consultations at a comprehensive cancer center. J Palliat Med. 2007;10(4):948–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Strasser F, Sweeney C, Willey J, Benisch-Tolley S, Palmer JL, Bruera E. Impact of a half-day multidisciplinary symptom control and palliative care outpatient clinic in a comprehensive cancer center on recommendations, symptom intensity, and patient satisfaction: a retrospective descriptive study. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2004;27(6):481–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Osta BE, Palmer JL, Paraskevopoulos T, et al. Interval between first palliative care consult and death in patients diagnosed with advanced cancer at a comprehensive cancer center. J Palliat Med. 2008;11(1): 51–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Cheng WW, Willey J, Palmer JL, Zhang T, Bruera E. Interval between palliative care referral and death among patients treated at a comprehensive cancer center. J Palliat Med. 2005;8(5):1025–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Hui D, Elsayem A, De la Cruz M, et al. Availability and integration of palliative care at US cancer centers. JAMA. 2010;303(11):1054–61.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Miyashita M, Hirai K, Morita T, Sanjo M, Uchitomi Y. Barriers to referral to inpatient palliative care units in Japan: a qualitative survey with content analysis. Support Care Cancer. 2008;16(3):217–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Freireich EJ, Kurzrock R. The role of investigational therapy in management of patients with advanced metastatic malignancy. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(2): 304–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Hui D, Elsayem A, Li Z, De La Cruz M, Palmer JL, Bruera E. Antineoplastic therapy use in patients with advanced cancer admitted to an acute palliative care unit at a comprehensive cancer center: a simultaneous care model. Cancer. 2010;116(8):2036–43.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Fadul N, Elsayem A, Palmer JL, et al. Supportive versus palliative care: what’s in a name?: a survey of medical oncologists and midlevel providers at a comprehensive cancer center. Cancer. 2009;115(9): 2013–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Ferris FD, Bruera E, Cherny N, et al. Palliative cancer care a decade later: accomplishments, the need, next steps – from the American Society of Clinical Oncology. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(18):3052–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Bruera E, Hui D. Integrating supportive and palliative care in the trajectory of cancer: establishing goals and models of care. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(25):4013–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Wright AA, Zhang B, Ray A, et al. Associations between end-of-life discussions, patient mental health, medical care near death, and caregiver bereavement adjustment. JAMA. 2008;300(14): 1665–73.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Glick S. Withholding versus withdrawal of life support: is there an ethical difference? BMJ. 2011;342:d728.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Dickenson DL. Are medical ethicists out of touch? Practitioner attitudes in the US and UK towards decisions at the end of life. J Med Ethics. 2000;26(4): 254–60.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Rebagliato M, Cuttini M, Broggin L, et al. Neonatal end-of-life decision making: Physicians’ attitudes and relationship with self-reported practices in 10 European countries. JAMA. 2000;284(19): 2451–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Kirby DF, DeLegge MH, Fleming CR. American Gastroenterological Association technical review on tube feeding for enteral nutrition. Gastroenterology. 1995;108(4):1282–301.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Winter SM. Terminal nutrition: framing the debate for the withdrawal of nutritional support in terminally ill patients. Am J Med. 2000;109(9):723–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Bouvia v. Superior Court, 179 1127 (Cal: Court of Appeal, 2nd Appellate Dist., 2nd Div. 1986).Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Cruzan v. Director, Mo. Dept. of Health, 497 261 (Supreme Court 1990).Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Feltman DM, Du H, Leuthner SR. Survey of neonatologists’ attitudes toward limiting life-sustaining treatments in the neonatal intensive care unit. J Perinatol. 2012;32(11):886–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Solomon MZ, Sellers DE, Heller KS, et al. New and lingering controversies in pediatric end-of-life care. Pediatrics. 2005;116(4):872–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Journal of the American Medical Association. Decisions near the end of life. Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs, American Medical Association. JAMA. 1992;267(16):2229–33.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Turnbull J. The Hastings center guidelines for decisions on life-sustaining treatment and care near the end of life. Crit Care Med. 2014;42(1):e87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Ellershaw JE, Sutcliffe JM, Saunders CM. Dehydration and the dying patient. J Pain Symptom Manag. 1995;10(3):192–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Bruera E, Franco JJ, Maltoni M, Watanabe S, Suarez-Almazor M. Changing pattern of agitated impaired mental status in patients with advanced cancer: association with cognitive monitoring, hydration, and opioid rotation. J Pain Symptom Manag. 1995;10(4): 287–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Bruera S, Chisholm G, Dos Santos R, Crovador C, Bruera E, Hui D. Variations in vital signs in the last days of life in patients with advanced cancer. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2014;48(4):510–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Hui D, dos Santos R, Chisholm G, et al. Clinical signs of impending death in cancer patients. Oncologist. 2014;19:681–7.  https://doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2013-0457.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Hui D, dos Santos R, Chisholm G, Bansal S, Souza Crovador C, Bruera E. Bedside clinical signs associated with impending death in patients with advanced cancer: preliminary findings of a prospective, longitudinal cohort study. Cancer. 2015;121(6):960–7.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Palliative Care, Rehabilitation and Integrative MedicineThe University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations