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Electrolytic Abnormalities Related to Magnesium in Critically Ill Cancer Patients

  • Agamenón Quintero
  • Jorge RacedoEmail author
  • Heinznel Negrete
Reference work entry

Abstract

Magnesium is a cation found primarily in a bound state and serves as a critical cofactor for ATP-dependent reactions. It is important in physiological processes such as energy release, enzymatic activation, muscle contractility, and synaptic transmission. The homeostasis of magnesium depends on the balance of a variety of factors such as parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, insulin, glucose, ADH, glucagon, catecholamines, and other electrolytes (calcium, sodium, potassium, and phosphorous). Magnesium metabolic disturbances are commonly present in critically ill patients admitted to ICU. Hypermagnesemia and hypomagnesemia may be associated with the development of life-threatening complications and organ dysfunction among ICU cancer patients. They lead to higher morbidity and mortality due to associated conditions as hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, cardiac arrhythmias, neurotoxicity, and psychiatric impairments. Because critically ill patients with cancer are predisposed to both symptomatic and asymptomatic hypermagnesemia and hypomagnesemia, ICU clinicians should avoid and manage them because of their impact on survival and length of ICU.

Keywords

Bowel disorders Hypermagnesemia Hypocalcemia Hypomagnesemia Magnesium absorption Magnesium homeostasis Oncologic emergency Renal insufficiency 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Agamenón Quintero
    • 1
  • Jorge Racedo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Heinznel Negrete
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Critical Care MedicineInstituto Médico de Alta Tecnología IMAT OncomedicaMonteríaColombia

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