Late Noninfectious Pulmonary Complications in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

  • Kevin Dsouza
  • Cameron Pywell
  • Victor J. ThannickalEmail author
Reference work entry


Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an established therapeutic modality for a number of malignant and nonmalignant conditions. Pulmonary complications following HSCT are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. These complications may be classified into infectious versus noninfectious, and early versus late based on the time of occurrence post-transplant. Thus, exclusion of infectious etiologies is the first step in the diagnoses of pulmonary complications. Late onset noninfectious pulmonary complications typically occur 3 months post-transplant. Bronchiolitis obliterans is the major contributor to late-onset pulmonary complications, and its clinical presentation, pathogenesis, and current therapeutic approaches are discussed. Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome is another important complication which usually occurs early, although its onset may be delayed. Organizing pneumonia is important to recognize due to its responsiveness to corticosteroids. Other late onset noninfectious pulmonary complications discussed here include pulmonary venoocclusive disease, pulmonary cytolytic thrombi, pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis, thoracic air leak syndrome, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders.


Bronchiolitis obliterans Hematopoietic stem cell transplant Pulmonary complications Organizing pneumonia 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin Dsouza
    • 1
  • Cameron Pywell
    • 2
  • Victor J. Thannickal
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of MedicineUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  2. 2.Department of MedicineUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Yenny Cardenas
    • 1
  1. 1.Critical Care DepartmentUniversidad del Rosario Hospital Universitario Fundacion Santa Fe deBogotaColombia

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