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Endoscopic and Pharmacologic Management of Upper GI Bleeding

  • David M. RichardsEmail author
  • Sajini Thekkel
  • William A. Ross
Reference work entry

Abstract

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding can occur from multiple sources. Broadly, upper gastrointestinal bleeding can be divided into variceal and nonvariceal etiologies. The suspected source of bleeding will drive the initial resuscitation and management. Adequate resuscitation, management of the patients prior medications, initiating medications to affect gastric pH, initiating vasoactive drugs, or administering antibiotics all occur prior to endoscopy. Endoscopy is important in the diagnosis and management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Pharmacologic agents are useful during the endoscopy to help achieve hemostasis. Finally, once hemostasis is achieved, decisions must be made regarding reinitiation of previous mediations like antithrombotics and which medications can be used acutely and chronically to reduce the risk of rebleeding and mortality from upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

Keywords

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding Nonvariceal Variceal Proton pump inhibitors Antithrombotic Antiplatelet Anticoagulation Octreotide Vasoactive drugs Epinephrine Hemospray 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • David M. Richards
    • 2
    Email author
  • Sajini Thekkel
    • 1
  • William A. Ross
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain MedicineThe University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition, Division of Internal MedicineThe University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA

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