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Catheter- and Device-Related Infections in Critically Ill Cancer Patients

  • Alexandre MalekEmail author
  • Issam Raad
Reference work entry

Abstract

Central venous catheters are essential for treating the critically ill and cancer patients. However, this patient population is at high risk for catheter-related bloodstream infections that deemed to be a major cause of healthcare-related infections and have been reported to be associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The diagnosis of central line as a source of infection relies on specific laboratory testing, and the definition of catheter-related bloodstream infections formulated by the Infectious Diseases Society of America remains the most accurate definition. The leading cause of catheter-associated bloodstream infection is gram-positive bacteria, particularly coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species. Central line-related infections require a multidisciplinary approach for preventing and managing these infections. Catheter removal combined with appropriate intravenous antibiotics remains the keystone of therapy; however, novel interventions for salvaging the catheters have been developed, including antimicrobial lock solutions or exchanging with antimicrobial-coated catheters. Moreover, antimicrobial-impregnated catheters and lock therapy are also effective in preventing short-term and long-term catheter-related infections.

Keywords

Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) Biofilm formation Central venous catheter (CVC) Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) Antimicrobial lock therapy Systemic antibiotics Catheter salvage lock therapy Catheter removal 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee HealthThe University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA

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