Health Impact of Airborne Fungi
Fungi are ubiquitous microorganisms present in outdoor and indoor environments. There are relationships between environmental fungal exposures and human health effects. Exposure to indoor air pollutants might be more hazardous for inhabitants than exposure to outdoor air pollutants. Known health effects from fungal exposure include infection, illness from inhalation or ingestion of mycotoxins, and various hypersensitivity disorders. Exposure to high concentrations of indoor fungal spores can cause many health problems, such as bronchial asthma, in addition the health hazards of exposure to high concentrations of mycotoxins for long durations.
Mycotoxins are toxins naturally produced as secondary metabolites by some fungi, such as aflatoxins, ochratoxins, zearalenone, trichothecenes, and fumonisins. Aflatoxins appear particularly dangerous and capable of causing disease and death in both humans and animals because of their carcinogenic properties. Reducing moisture, killing fungi, and removing contaminated materials can decrease this risk of morbidity.
KeywordsFungi Mycotoxins Health problem
- Cheng Z, Root M, Pan W et al (1997) Use of an improved method for analysis of urinary aflatoxin M1 in a survey of mainland China and Taiwan. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 6(7):523–529Google Scholar
- Devreese M, de Backer P, Croubels S (2013) Overview of the most important mycotoxins for the pig and poultry husbandry. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 82:171–180Google Scholar
- Hall AJ, Wild CP (1994) Epidemiology of aflatoxin related disease. In: Eaton DL, Groopman JD (eds) The toxicology of aflatoxins: human health, veterinary, and agricultural significance. Academic, San Diego, pp 223–258Google Scholar
- National Toxicology Program (NTP) (2011) Report on carcinogens, 12th edn. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, 499 pp. http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/twelfth/roc12.pdfGoogle Scholar
- Ruzer LS, Harley NH (2005) Aerosols handbook: measurement, dosimetry and health effects. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- Saad S, Awad A-H, Aziz H (2006) Assessment of respiratory health problems due to exposure to airborne fungi in ceramics industry. Egypt J Occup Med 30(2):193–216Google Scholar
- Saad-Hussein A, El-Mofty HM, Hassanien MA (2011). Climate change and funfal keratitis trend: In Egypt. Eastern Med Health J 17(6):468–473Google Scholar
- Saad-Hussein A, El-Ghor AA, Noshy MM et al (2013b) Hepatotoxic effect of aflatoxin B1 and polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase in millers occupationally exposed to Aspergillus. J Appl Sci Res 9(3):1724–1730Google Scholar
- Wang JS, Huang T, Su J et al (2001) Hepatocellular carcinoma and aflatoxin exposure in Zhuqing Village, Fusui County, People’s Republic of China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 10:143–146Google Scholar