Health Impact of Airborne Fungi

  • Amal Saad-HusseinEmail author
  • Khadiga S. Ibrahim
Living reference work entry


Fungi are ubiquitous microorganisms present in outdoor and indoor environments. There are relationships between environmental fungal exposures and human health effects. Exposure to indoor air pollutants might be more hazardous for inhabitants than exposure to outdoor air pollutants. Known health effects from fungal exposure include infection, illness from inhalation or ingestion of mycotoxins, and various hypersensitivity disorders. Exposure to high concentrations of indoor fungal spores can cause many health problems, such as bronchial asthma, in addition the health hazards of exposure to high concentrations of mycotoxins for long durations.

Mycotoxins are toxins naturally produced as secondary metabolites by some fungi, such as aflatoxins, ochratoxins, zearalenone, trichothecenes, and fumonisins. Aflatoxins appear particularly dangerous and capable of causing disease and death in both humans and animals because of their carcinogenic properties. Reducing moisture, killing fungi, and removing contaminated materials can decrease this risk of morbidity.


Fungi Mycotoxins Health problem 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental & Occupational MedicineNational Research Centre CairoEgypt

Section editors and affiliations

  • Yousef S. Khader
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Community Medicine, Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of MedicineJordan University of Science & TechnologyIrbidJordan

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