The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Global Security Studies

Living Edition
| Editors: Scott Romaniuk, Manish Thapa, Péter Marton

Hybrid Conflict and Wars

  • Ákos BaumgartnerEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74336-3_61-2

Every age has its own kind of war, its own limiting conditions, and its own peculiar preconceptions. – Carl von Clausewitz

Hybrid Warfare

Hybrid warfare (also nonlinear war or nontraditional war) is the combination of regular, irregular warfare, and cyber warfare (Romaniuk and Burgers 2017). The concept refers to the use of “old” and “new” instruments in the toolkit of war, such as forms of information operations, including the use of propaganda, media influence, terrorism, and the disinformation of the population.

Hybrid warfare compels countries, actors, and the military alliances to be more resilient. The nature of hybrid warfare is changing constantly, thus the way in which hybrid warfare will be combatted is the responsibility of the coping parties. Their resilience will be crucial in their contribution to fighting with one of the newest challenges of security in the post-Cold War era, with hybrid warfare and its threats (Porkoláb 2015).

Hybrid warfare changes the strategies of...

Keywords

Hybrid warfare Irregular warfare Nonlinear war Nontraditional war Crimea Annexation Russia Montenegro Propaganda Cyber warfare Psychological warfare USA China UUV USV EU Soft power 
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. European Commission. (2017). A European Defence Fund: €5.5 billion per year to boost Europe’s defence capabilities. Retrieved from European Commission Press Release Database: http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-1508_en.htm
  2. Baker, B. D. (2015). Hybrid warfare with Chinese characteristics. Retrieved from The Diplomat: https://thediplomat.com/2015/09/hybrid-warfare-with-chinese-characteristics/
  3. Council of the European Union. (2016). Council conclusions on countering hybrid threats. Retrieved from European Council – Council of the European Union: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2016/04/19/fac-conclusions-hybrid-threats/
  4. Burgers, T. J., & Romaniuk, S. N. (2016). Hybrid warfare in the South China Sea: The United States’ ‘Little Grey (Un)Men’. Retrieved from The Diplomat: https://thediplomat.com/2016/12/hybrid-warfare-in-the-south-china-sea-the-united-states-little-grey-unmen/
  5. Burgers, T., & Romaniuk, S. N. (2017a, February 16). Hybrid warriors: China’s unmanned, guerrilla-style warfare in Asia’s littorals. Retrieved from The Diplomat: https://thediplomat.com/2017/02/hybrid-warriors-chinas-unmanned-guerilla-style-warfare-in-asias-littorals/
  6. Burgers, T., & Romaniuk, S. N. (2017b, March 30). Will hybrid warfare protect America’s interests in the South China Sea? Retrieved from The Diplomat: https://thediplomat.com/2017/03/will-hybrid-warfare-protect-americas-interests-in-the-south-china-sea/
  7. Wiśniewski, J. (2015). Ukrainian crisis – Example of a hybrid war (General Lessons). Zeszyty Naukowe, 4(101), 175–187.Google Scholar
  8. Croft, A., & Apps, P. (2014, March 16). Reuters. Retrieved from NATO websites hit in cyber attack linked to Crimea tension: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-ukraine-nato/nato-websites-hit-in-cyber-attack-linked-to-crimea-tension-idUSBREA2E0T320140316
  9. Deep, A. (2015, March 02). Hybrid war: Old concept, new techniques. Forrás: Small Wars Journal. http://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/hybrid-war-old-concept-new-techniques
  10. Ducaru, A. S. (2016). The cyber dimension of modern hybrid warfare and its relevance for NATO. Europolity, 7–23. Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  11. Eckstein, M. (2015, October 06). U.S. Naval Commander in Europe: NATO Needs to Adapt to Russia’s new way of hybrid warfare. Retrieved from USNI News: https://news.usni.org/2015/10/06/u-s-naval-commander-in-europe-nato-needs-to-adapt-to-russias-new-way-of-hybrid-warfare
  12. Eszterhai, V., & Klemensits, P. (2016). A dél-kínai-tengeri szigetek ügyében hozott hágai ítélet geopolitikai következményei. Budapest: Pallas Azhéné Geopolitikai Alapítvány (PAGEO).Google Scholar
  13. Farmer, B. (2017a, February 19). Russia plotted to overthrow Montenegro's government by assassinating Prime Minister Milo Djukanovic last year, according to senior Whitehall sources. Retrieved from The Telegraph: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/02/18/russias-deadly-plot-overthrow-montenegros-government-assassinating/
  14. Farmer, B. (2017b, February 20). ‘Russian state bodies’ behind Montenegro coup plot says prosecutor. Retrieved from The Telegraph: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/02/20/russian-state-bodies-behind-montenegro-coup-plot-says-prosecutor/
  15. Fekete, C. (2016, April 03). A NATO reakciói az orosz hibrid háborús fenyegetésre. Retrieved from BiztonságPolitika: http://biztonsagpolitika.hu/nato-netto/a-nato-reakcioi-az-orosz-hibrid-haborus-fenyegetesre
  16. Fleming, M. B. (2011). The hybrid threat concept: Contemporary war, military planning and the advent of unrestricted operational art. Fort Leavenworth: School of Advanced Military Studies (SAMS).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Foster, P. (2013, April 23). ‘Bogus; AP tweet about explosion at the White House wipes billions off US markets. Retrieved from The Telegraph: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/markets/10013768/Bogus-AP-tweet-about-explosion-at-the-White-House-wipes-billions-off-US-markets.html
  18. France 24. (2015, April 9). France24. Retrieved from France’s TV5Monde targeted in ‘IS group cyberattack’: http://www.france24.com/en/20150409-france-tv5monde-is-group-hacking
  19. Glenn, D. R. (2009). Thoughts on “hybrid” conflict. Small Wars Journal.Google Scholar
  20. Grieger, G. (2016). China and the South China Sea issue. European Union: European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS). Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  21. Hunter, E., & Pernik, P. (2015). The challenges of hybrid warfare. Tallinn: International Centre for Defence and Security.Google Scholar
  22. Jasper, S., & Moreland, S. (2014, December 01). The Islamic state is a hybrid threat: why does that matter? Retrieved from Small Wars Journal: http://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/the-islamic-state-is-a-hybrid-threat-why-does-that-matter
  23. Jiang, S., & Bohn, K. (2016, December 20). China returns seized US underwater drone. Retrieved from cnn.com: http://edition.cnn.com/2016/12/20/politics/china-drone-return/index.html
  24. Kofman, M. (2016, March 11). Russian hybrid warfare and other dark arts. Retrieved from War on the Rocks: https://warontherocks.com/2016/03/russian-hybrid-warfare-and-other-dark-arts/
  25. Kofman, M., & Rojansky, M. (2015). A closer look at Russia’s “hybrid war” (Kennan Cable, 7). Washington, DC: Wilson Center (Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars).Google Scholar
  26. Kremlin rejects claims Russia had role in Montenegro coup plot. (2017, February 17). Retrieved from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/feb/20/russian-state-bodies-attempted-a-coup-in-montenegro-says-prosecutor
  27. Luhn, A., & Roberts, D. (2014, August 23). Ukraine condemns ‘direct invasion’ as Russian aid convoy crosses border. Retrieved from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/22/russian-convoy-crosses-border-ukraine-without-permission
  28. MacDonald, B. (2016, February 10). ‘Hybrid Warfare’: Anti-Russia propaganda finds a new buzzword. Retrieved from RT: https://www.rt.com/op-edge/331999-western-media-russia-propaganda/
  29. Magyari, P. (2017, June 12). Felfalja az emberek agyát az orosz típusú propaganda. Retrieved from 444.hu: https://444.hu/2017/06/12/felfalja-az-emberek-agyat-az-orosz-tipusu-propaganda
  30. Solon, O., & Hern, A. (2017, June 28). ‘Petya’ ransomware attack: what is it and how can it be stopped? Retrieved from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/jun/27/petya-ransomware-cyber-attack-who-what-why-how
  31. Pawlak, P. (2017). Countering hybrid threats: EU-NATO cooperation. European Union: European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS). Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  32. Perry, K. (2015, September 12). Mirror. Retrieved from ISIS hackers intercept top secret British Government emails in major security breach uncovered by GCHQ: https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/isis-hackers-intercept-top-secret-6428423
  33. Petrovskaya, J. (2016, November 04). Hybrid operation “Montenegro”. Retrieved from Intersection: http://intersectionproject.eu/article/russia-europe/hybrid-operation-montenegro
  34. Porkoláb, I. (2014). A hadviselés adaptációja: harc az emberi elméért (Adaptation of warfare from an intelligence point of view). Hadtudományi Szemle, 7(3), 57–69.Google Scholar
  35. Porkoláb, I. (2015). Hibrid hadviselés: új hadviselési forma, vagy régi ismerős? Hadtudomány, 25(3-4), 36–48.Google Scholar
  36. Puyvelde, D. D. (2015). Hybrid war – does it even exist? Retrieved from NATO Review Magazine: https://www.nato.int/docu/review/2015/Also-in-2015/hybrid-modern-future-warfare-russia-ukraine/EN/
  37. Rácz, A. (2014). The good, the bad and Clausewitz. HIIA PAPERS – Series of the Hungarian Institute of International Affairs (pp. 3–14). Budapest: Hungarian Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  38. Radin, A. (2017). Hybrid warfare in the Baltics. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.Google Scholar
  39. Renz, B., & Smith, H. (2016). Russia and hybrid warfare – Going beyond the label. Aleksanteri Papers, 1. Helsinki: Aleksanteri Institute, University of Helsinki. Retrieved from: https://www.stratcomcoe.org/bettina-renz-and-hanna-smith-russia-and-hybrid-warfare-going-beyond-label
  40. Romaniuk, S. N. (2017, February 07). Maritime hybrid warfare and the South China Sea dispute. Retrieved from Geopolitical Monitor: https://www.geopoliticalmonitor.com/maritime-hybrid-warfare-and-the-south-china-sea-dispute/
  41. Rothwell, J., Titcomb, J., & McGoogan C. (2017, June 27). Petya cyber attack: Ransomware spreads across Europe with firms in Ukraine, Britain and Spain shut down. Retrieved from The Telegraph: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/06/27/ukraine-hit-massive-cyber-attack1/
  42. Russian MP Threatens Montenegro With Missiles. (2014, May 07). Retrieved from Balkan Insight: http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/russian-mp-threatens-montenegro-with-missiles
  43. Safi, M. (2015, August 13). The Guardian. Retrieved from Isis ‘hacking division’ releases details of 1,400 Americans and urges attacks: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/aug/13/isis-hacking-division-releases-details-of-1400-americans-and-urges-attacks
  44. Romaniuk, S. N., & Burgers T. J. (2017). “Hybrid” and “joint” warfare. In S. N. Romaniuk & F. Grice (Eds.), The future of US warfare (pp. 53–54). New York/Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  45. Stashwick, S. (2017a, July 31). Chinese underwater drones eyed for possible sub-detection role. Retrieved from The Diplomat: https://thediplomat.com/2017/07/chinese-underwater-drones-eyed-for-possible-sub-detection-role/
  46. Stashwick, S. (2017b, July 19). US designing new unmanned vehicles to help its subs detect adversaries. Retrieved from The Diplomat: https://thediplomat.com/2017/07/us-designing-new-unmanned-vehicles-to-help-its-subs-detect-adversaries/
  47. Stavridlis, A. J. (2016, December). Maritime hybrid warfare is coming. Retrieved from U.S. Naval Institute: https://www.usni.org/magazines/proceedings/2016-12-0/maritime-hybrid-warfare-coming
  48. Svetoka, S., & Reynolds, A. (2016). Social media as a tool of hybrid warfare. Riga: NATO Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence.Google Scholar
  49. StopFake.org. (2016, February 08). The Hybrid War: Russia’s Propaganda Campaign Against Germany. Retrieved from StopFake.org: https://www.stopfake.org/en/the-hybrid-war-russia-s-propaganda-campaign-against-germany/
  50. Trevithick, J. (2017, October 04). Russia breaks into US Soldiers’ iPhones in apparent hybrid warfare attacks. Retrieved from The Drive: http://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone/14867/russia-breaks-into-us-soldiers-iphones-in-apparent-hybrid-warfare-attacks
  51. Vándor, É. (2014, April 16). Putyin valami egészen új dolgot talált fel. Retrieved from Origo: http://www.origo.hu/nagyvilag/20140416-vlagyimir-putyin-ukrajnaban-atirta-a-21-szazadi-hadviseles-szabalyait.html
  52. Szekeres, I. W. (2017, February 26). Koffernyi pénzzel érkeztek a puccskísérletet szervező oroszok. Retrieved from: http://hvg.hu/vilag/20170226_montenegro_puccskiserlet_merenylet
  53. Wenerski, L., & Kacewicz, M. (2017). Russian soft power in Poland – The Kremlin and pro-Russian organizations. Budapest: Political Capital.Google Scholar
  54. Zhou, A. (2015, June 12). China’s Maritime Disputes: Trouble to the South, but the East stays quiet. Retrieved from The Diplomat: https://thediplomat.com/2015/06/chinas-maritime-disputes-trouble-to-the-south-but-the-east-stays-quiet/
  55. Tisdall, S. (2016, May 16). Little blue men: the maritime militias pushing China’s claims. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/may/16/little-blue-men-the-maritime-militias-pushing-chinas-claims-in-south-china-sea

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Corvinus University of BudapestBudapestHungary