The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Global Security Studies

Living Edition
| Editors: Scott Romaniuk, Manish Thapa, Péter Marton

Ecosystems

  • Haniyeh NowzariEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74336-3_396-1

Introduction

Humanity has always depended on the services provided by the biosphere and its ecosystems. Further, the biosphere is itself the product of life on Earth. The composition of the atmosphere and soil, the cycling of elements through air and waterways, and many other ecological assets are all the result of living processes – and all are maintained and replenished by living ecosystems. The human species, while buffered against environmental immediacies by culture and technology, is ultimately fully dependent on the flow of ecosystem services (ES from hereon; see Hassan et al. 2005). Humans are a dominant species in the world today, and ecology is concerned with how humans interact with all other kinds of organisms. From a practical viewpoint, humans need to learn about ecosystems because their future lives will be affected by the ecological changes they cause. Beyond that, humans live in a world of nature, and, like other land-dwelling organisms, they experience wind, rain,...

Keywords

Ecological system Energy flow Organisms Ecosystem services (ES) 
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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EnvironmentAbadeh Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityAbadehIran