Advertisement

Different Schools, Different Cultures

  • Prince Paa-Kwesi HetoEmail author
  • Masumi Hashimoto Odari
  • Wyse Koku Sunu
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Many research studies are showing that most students are not learning in school; some find it difficult to read and understand simple sentences even in their own local languages. This situation leads the authors to ask two related questions. What kinds of educational assistance programs can help improve the quality of learning for millions of learners in a way that honors and respects the dignity of their lives? How can educational leaders develop educational programs bearing in mind the differences within education systems and among students? This paper attempts to answer these questions by highlighting two educational assistant models that seek to respond to the challenge. The two models tap into the differences between and within schools and use it to provide educational environments that are conducive for learning and self-reflection. The paper argues that educators who take their time to study the differences within their school environment and take proactive steps to use those differences to teach students have a better chance of improving the quality of learning for all learners. The findings, also, lead the authors to suggest that there is a need for a new bottom-up theory of change that gives opportunities to locals to lead in almost all aspects of the problem-solving process.

Keywords

K–12 Education in Africa INDIE Education Initiative Soka University University of Nairobi Rural Prince Paa-Kwesi Heto Masumi Hashimoto Odari Wyse Koku Sunu Exchange program Global citizens Global learning crisis Sustainable development goals Diversity as a tool for teaching Power of difference Nested inequalities Social justice Literacy Achievement gap Theories of change 

References

  1. Baffoe, E. Y. (2013). Ibsen education in Ghana (Master’s thesis, The University of Oslo).Google Scholar
  2. Bajaj, M., Cislaghi, B., & Mackie, G. (2016). Advancing transformative human rights education: Report of the global citizenship commission. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers.  https://doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0091.13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brackett, M. A., & Rivers, S. E. (2014). Transforming students’ lives with social and emotional learning. In R. Pekrun & L. Linnenbrink-Garcia, International handbook of emotions in education (Vol. 368). New York, N.Y: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Burdick-Will, J., & Logan, J. R. (2017). Schools at the rural-urban boundary: Blurring the divide? The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 672(1), 185–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cohen, D., & Laporte, B. (2004 March). The evolution of the knowledge bank. London, UK. Knowledge Management Magazine, 7(6), 20–24.Google Scholar
  6. Colley, K. (1999). Coming to know a school culture (Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Tech).Google Scholar
  7. Coombs, P. H. (1968). The world educational crisis. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. de Educación, D. M. (2010). World data on education données mondiales de l’éducation Datos Mundiales de Educación VII Ed. 2010/11. Éducation, 11, 2012.Google Scholar
  9. Deane, S. (2016). Syria’s lost generation: Refugee education provision and societal security in an ongoing conflict emergency. IDS Bulletin, 47(3), 35–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dryden-Peterson, S. (2011). Refugee education: A global review. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.Google Scholar
  11. Felder, R. M., & Brent, R. (2005). Understanding student differences. Journal of Engineering Education, 94(1), 57–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Figlio, D., & Karbownik, K. (2017). Some schools much better than others at closing achievement gaps between their advantaged and disadvantaged students. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.Google Scholar
  13. Gahenda, C. J. (2018). Soka university: Discover your potential. In H. Indangasi, A. P. Mwangi, & M. Odari (Eds.), Value creating education in Kenya: Building a humane society. Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya Literature Bureau.Google Scholar
  14. Gamoran, A., & Bruch, S. K. (2017). Educational inequality in the United States: Can we reverse the tide? Journal of Education and Work, 30(7), 777–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Global Education Monitoring (GEM). (2013). The global learning crisis: Why every child deserves a quality education. Paris, France: The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).Google Scholar
  16. Godsey, M. (2015, June 15). The inequality in public schools. The Atlantic. Retrieved August 1, 2018 from https://www.theatlantic.com/
  17. Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. H. (1998). Exploring the principal’s contribution to school effectiveness: 1980–1995. School effectiveness and school improvement, 9(2), 157–191.Google Scholar
  18. Heto, P. P. K. (2010). Acculturation and stress management among international students at University of Ghana (Unpublished thesis). Accra, Ghana: University of Ghana.Google Scholar
  19. Heto, P. P. K. (2016). Value-creating (Soka) leadership. In H. Indangasi, A. P. Mwangi, & M. Odari (Eds.), Value creating education in Kenya: Building a humane society. Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya Literature Bureau.Google Scholar
  20. Hochschild, J. L. (2003). Social class in public schools. Journal of Social Issues, 59(4), 821–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Houlberg, K., Andersen, V. N., Bjørnholt, B., Krassel, K. F., & Petersen, L. H. (2016). Country background report–Denmark. The Danish Institute for Local and Regional Government Research (KORA).Google Scholar
  22. Iatarola, P., & Stiefel, L. (2003). Intra-district equity of public education resources and performance. Economics of Education Review, 22(1), 69–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ikeda, D. (1996). Thoughts on education for global citizenship (Lecture presented in Teachers College). New York, NY: Columbia University.Google Scholar
  24. Jennings, J. L., Deming, D., Jencks, C., Lopuch, M., & Schueler, B. E. (2015). Do differences in school quality matter more than we thought? New evidence on educational opportunity in the twenty-first century. Sociology of Education, 88(1), 56–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. KICD. (2017). Basic education curriculum framework. Nairobi, Kenya: Author. Retrieved from https://kicd.ac.ke/curriculum-reform/basic-education-curriculum-framework/Google Scholar
  26. Knight, D. S. (2017). Are school districts allocating resources equitably? The every student succeeds act, teacher experience gaps, and equitable resource allocation. Educational Policy.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0895904817719523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lee, V. E., Franco, C., & Albernaz, A. (2004). Quality and equality in Brazilian secondary schools: a multilevel cross-national school effects study. In Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  28. MacNeil, A. J., Prater, D. L., & Busch, S. (2009). The effects of school culture and climate on student achievement. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 12(1), 73–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mai, P. H., & Yang, J. W. (2013). The current situation of Vietnam education. Social Sciences, 2(6), 168–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Marks, G. N. (2006). Are between-and within-school differences in student performance largely due to socio-economic background? Evidence from 30 countries. Educational Research, 48(1), 21–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McInerney, M., & Elledge, A. (2013). Using a response to intervention framework to improve student learning: A pocket guide for state and district leaders. Implementing ESEA flexibility plans. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research.Google Scholar
  32. McLean, M. (1986). A world educational crisis? Compare, 16(2), 199–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mourshed, M., Farrell, D., & Barton, D. (2013). Education to employment: Designing a system that works: A report from McKinsey Center for Government, 2013. Retrieved from https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/social-sector/our-insights/education-to-employment-designing-a-system-that-works
  34. Nilsson, P. A. (2013). Expectations and experiences of temporarily studying abroad. História: Revista da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto, 3.Google Scholar
  35. Opdenakker, M. C., & Van Damme, J. (2006). Differences between secondary schools: A study about school context, group composition, school practice, and school effects with special attention to public and Catholic schools and types of schools. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 17(1), 87–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Opoku-Asare, N. A., & Siaw, A. O. (2016). Curricula and inferential factors that affect student achievement in rural, urban, and peri-urban senior high schools in Ghana: Evidence from the visual arts program. SAGE Open, 6(3), 2158244016661747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Plehwe, D. (2007). A global knowledge bank? The world bank and bottom-up efforts to reinforce neoliberal development perspectives in the post-Washington consensus era. Globalizations, 4(4), 514–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Reardon, S. F., Kalogrides, D., & Shores, K. (2017). The geography of racial/ethnic test score gaps. CEPA Working Paper No. 16-10. Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis.Google Scholar
  39. Roza, M., Hill, P. T., Sclafani, S., & Speakman, S. (2004). How within-district spending inequities help some schools to fail. Brookings papers on education policy, (7), 201–227.Google Scholar
  40. Rubenstein, R., Schwartz, A. E., & Stiefel, L. (2006, April). Rethinking the intradistrict distribution of school inputs to disadvantaged students. In Rethinking Rodriguez Conference, University of California, Berkeley, April.Google Scholar
  41. Sackey, W. K. (2014). Mama, I wont’t go to school. Conflictual relations between education and fishing among the children of Anomabo in the central region of Ghana (Unpublished master’s thesis). The University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.Google Scholar
  42. Sandell, E. J. (2007). Impact of international education experiences on undergraduate students. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 73(4), 12.Google Scholar
  43. Semuels, A. (2016). Good school, rich school; bad school, poor school: The inequality at the heart of America’s education system. The Atlantic. Retrieved from www.theatlantic.com
  44. Shaffer, D. W., & Gee, J. P. (2005). Before every child is left behind: how epistemic games can solve the coming crisis in education. WCER Working Paper No. 2005–7. Wisconsin Center for Education Research (NJ1).Google Scholar
  45. The Education for All Global Monitoring Report (EFA). (2014). Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all. Paris, France: The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).Google Scholar
  46. The Education for All Global Monitoring Report (EFA). (2015). Education for all 2000–2015: Achievements and challenges. Paris, France: The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).Google Scholar
  47. The Global Education Monitoring Report (GEM). (2016). Education for people and planet: Creating sustainable future for all. Paris, France: The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).Google Scholar
  48. The United Nations. (2015). Transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development. New York, NY: Author.Google Scholar
  49. UN General Assembly. (1948). Universal declaration of human rights (217 [III] A). Paris.Google Scholar
  50. Wenglinsky, H. (2001). Teacher classroom practices and student performance: How schools can make a difference. ETS Research Report Series, 2001(2), i-37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. White, K. (1999). L.A. board names CEO with broad powers. Education Week. Retrieved from https://www.edweek.org
  52. Whitehurst, G. J. R., Chingos, M. M., & Gallaher, M. R. (2013). Do school districts matter? Brookings Institute.Google Scholar
  53. Willms, J. D. (2003). Student engagement at school. A sense of belonging and participation. Paris, France: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.Google Scholar
  54. Winthrop, R., & McGivney, E. (2015). Why wait 100 years? Bridging the gap in global education. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  55. Yeboah, R. B. (2016). School culture and its implication on the education of pupils: a case of Patasi M/A junior high school in Kumasi, Ghana (Unpublished master’s thesis). Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Prince Paa-Kwesi Heto
    • 1
    Email author
  • Masumi Hashimoto Odari
    • 2
  • Wyse Koku Sunu
    • 3
  1. 1.INDIE Education InitiativeIrvineUSA
  2. 2.University of NairobiNairobiKenya
  3. 3.INDIE Education InitiativeAccraGhana

Section editors and affiliations

  • Aletha M. Harven
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychology and Child DevelopmentCalifornia State University, StanislausTurlockUSA

Personalised recommendations