Bacterial Cell-Mineral Interface, Its Impacts on Biofilm Formation and Bioremediation
This chapter aims to provide a better understanding of the bacterial cell attachment and biofilm formation on the mineral surfaces, which would result in improving our knowledge about: the interfacial forces governing the bacterial cell attachment, predicting trends of the biofilm formation and consequently biodegradation rates, and the contaminant’s fate in the diverse geological media (Pouran HM. Studying molecular and nanoscale interactions at metal oxide surfaces and their effects on bacterial adhesion, 2009).
In both aqueous and terrestrial environments, bacterial cells tend to be attached to a surface and form biofilm. If they are associated to, e.g., a mineral surface, bacterial cells would remain in a more stable microenvironment instead of being removed by the water shear stress. Even the bacterial planktonic phase can be considered as a mechanism for translocation from one surface to the other rather than a prime lifestyle (Watnick and Kolter 2000; Young 2006). The biofilm formation, which completely covers the surface, initially begins by the adhesion of a small quantity of cells (Vadillo-rodri et al. 2006; Pouran et al. 2017).
Among the different indigenous microbial species in the contaminated environments, some are capable of degrading pollutants and participating in the environmental remediation process. The bioremediation process of the contaminated soils and waters is often considered a promising low risk management tool. Even when the contamination poses an imminent threat and other approaches are essential, bioremediation often is a viable secondary strategy for the site maintenance (Haws et al. 2006; Pouran et al. 2017).
Natural environments are dynamic and complex systems; therefore, characterization and identifying the underlying processes governing the contaminant’s fate are not easy. Examples of the natural environments heterogeneity are the diverse physicochemical properties of the soils and aquifers matrices (Stumm and Morgan 1996). As the soils and sediments are the prime surfaces for the bacterial cell attachment in most natural environments, elucidation of the surface properties of these constituents and their role in initiating cell adhesion and biofilm formation are of the key importance in understanding the bioremediation process. In fact, the cell-mineral interface reactions not only influence the biodegradation process but many natural phenomena are affected by them.
KeywordsBacterial cell-mineral interface Biofilm Bioremediation Microenvironment Planktonic phase
- Andrews JS, Pouran HM, Scholes J, Rolfe SA, Banwart SA (2009) Multi-factorial analysis of surface interactions in single species environmental bacteria and model surfaces. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 73:A44Google Scholar
- Bergstrom TS, Liu Y, Soto ER, Brown CA, Mcgimpsey WG, Camesano TA, Iv RJE, Bergstrom TS, Liu Y, Soto ER et al (2006) Microscale correlation between surface chemistry, texture, and the adhesive strength of Staphylococcus epidermidis microscale correlation between surface chemistry, texture, and the adhesive strength of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Langmuir 22(26):11311–11321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bourikas K, Kordulis C, Lycourghiotis A (2006) The mechanism of the protonation of metal (hydr)oxides in aqueous solutions studied for various interfacial/surface ionization models and physicochemical parameters: a critical review and a novel approach. Adv Colloid Interf Sci 121:111–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dean JR, Jones MA, Holmes D, Reed R, Weyers J, Jones A (2002) Practical skills in chemistry. Prentice Hall, HarlowGoogle Scholar
- Dixon JB, Weed SB (1992) Minerals in soil environment. SSSA Book Ser, MadisonGoogle Scholar
- Fedorov MV, Goodman JM, Schumm S (2009) The effect of sodium chloride on poly-L-glutamate conformation. Chem Commun, pp 896–898Google Scholar
- Fingerman M, Nagabhushanam R (2016) Bioremediation of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, vol 1. CRC PressGoogle Scholar
- Huang W, Andrews J, Wang Y, Ultrasonic DNA (2008) Transfer to gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Abstr Gen Meet Am Soc Microbiol 108:548Google Scholar
- Klabunde KJ (2001) Nanoscale materials in chemistryGoogle Scholar
- Lindon JC, Tranter GE, Holmes JL (2000) Encyclopedia of spectroscopy and spectrometery, part 1, pp 1–3Google Scholar
- Ojeda JJ, Romero-Gonzalez ME, Pouran HM, Banwart S (2008) In situ monitoring of the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas putida on hematite using flow-cell ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to investigate the formation of inner-sphere bonds between the bacteria and the mineral. Mineral Mag 72(1):101–106Google Scholar
- Ojeda JJ, Romero-Gonzalez ME, Bachmann RT, Edyvean RGJ, Banwart SA, Building FM, Uni T, Street M, Sheffield S, Kingdom U (2008b) Characterization of the cell surface and cell wall chemistry of drinking water bacteria by combining XPS, FTIR spectroscopy, modeling, and potentiometric titrations. Langmuir 24(8):4032–4040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pouran HM, Fotovat A, Haghnia G, Halajnia A, Chamsaz, M (2008) A case study: chromium concentration and its species in a calcareous soil affected by leather industries effluents. World Appl Sci J 5(4):484–489Google Scholar
- Pouran HM (2009) Studying molecular and nanoscale interactions at metal oxide surfaces and their effects on bacterial adhesionGoogle Scholar
- Pouran HM, Andrews JS, Romero-Gonzalez M, Banwart SA (2009) Effects of surface charge and hydrophobicity of synthetic metal oxides on attached growth of environmental bacterial isolates. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 73:A1048–A1048Google Scholar
- Pouran HM, Banwart SA, Romero-Gonzales M (2014) Coating a polystyrene well-plate surface with synthetic hematite, goethite and aluminium hydroxide for cell mineral adhesion studies in a controlled environment. Appl Geochem 42(1986):60–68Google Scholar
- Pouran HM, Banwart SA, Romero-Gonzalez M (2017) Effects of synthetic iron and aluminium oxide surface charge and hydrophobicity on the formation of bacterial biofilm. Env Sci Proc Imp 19(4):622–634Google Scholar
- Rosoff M (2002) Nano-surface chemistry. Marcel Dekker Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Schwertmann U, Cornell RM, Wiley InterScience (Online service) (2008) Iron oxides in the laboratory: preparation and characterization. WileyGoogle Scholar
- Stumm W, Morgan JJ (1996) Aquatic chemistry, chemical equilibria and rates in natural waters. Wiley, New York, pp 1022Google Scholar
- Wang ZL (2000) Characterization of nanophase materials, pp 432Google Scholar
- Zachara J, Fredrickson J (2004) Earth life interaction at the microbe-mineral interface workshop, pp 1–18Google Scholar