Advertisement

How to Improve Selectivity of a Material for Adsorptive Separation Applications

  • Vipin K. Saini
  • Aparajita Shankar
Reference work entry

Abstract

This chapter analyzes how adsorption selectivity of natural and synthetic materials was improved with different approaches, particularly for their adsorptive water treatment applications. To explain this approach, it includes some of the frequent modification in natural materials like activated carbon, natural zeolite, natural clay, biopolymer (like chitosan, cellulosic waste), sand, and some of the post-synthetic modification in materials like metal oxides, mesoporous silica, and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Herein, different types of modification approaches applied to an individual category of material were reviewed, systematically. The effects of these modifications on surface area, porosity, adsorption capacity, and surface chemistry were discussed in terms of change in their adsorption selectivity. For instance, it comprises impacts of oxidation, sulfurization, nitrogenation, and coordinate ligands on the surface properties of activated carbon. Similarly, the role of metal ion, surfactant cations, metal oxides, and polymers on the change in ion exchange properties of zeolites was explained. The change in physicochemical properties of clay on thermal treatment and treatment with ionic and organic species was compared. Likewise, the adsorption selectivity of the clay-based composite with different polymers and effects of modification of chitosan, agricultural by-products, sand, silica, metal oxides, and MOFs were deliberated. In the end, some of the future challenges in the field of adsorption selectivity are discussed.

Keywords

Adsorption technique Adsorbent materials Activated carbon Natural zeolite Chitosan Biomaterial Metal-organic framework 

References

  1. Abid HR et al (2013) Amino-functionalized Zr-MOF nanoparticles for adsorption of CO2 and CH4. Int J Smart Nanomater 4(1):72–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adebowale KO, Unuabonah IE, Olu-Owolabi BI (2006) The effect of some operating variables on the adsorption of lead and cadmium ions on kaolinite clay. J Hazard Mater 134(1–3):130–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ademiluyi F, Amadi S, Amakama NJ (2009) Adsorption and treatment of organic contaminants using activated carbon from waste Nigerian bamboo. J Appl Sci Environ Manag 13(3):39–47Google Scholar
  4. Adhikari AK, Lin K-S (2016) Improving CO2 adsorption capacities and CO2/N2 separation efficiencies of MOF-74(Ni, Co) by doping palladium-containing activated carbon. Chem Eng J 284:1348–1360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Afroze S, Sen TK, Ang HM (2016) Adsorption removal of zinc (II) from aqueous phase by raw and base modified Eucalyptus sheathiana bark: kinetics, mechanism and equilibrium study. Process Saf Environ Prot 102:336–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Afzali M, Darijani N, Amiri A (2007) Studies on the potential of natural zeolites and modified natural zeolites towards the removal of heavy metals from smoke cigarette. Asian J Chem 19(3):1723Google Scholar
  7. Akhigbe L, Ouki S, Saroj D (2016) Disinfection and removal performance for Escherichia coli and heavy metals by silver-modified zeolite in a fixed bed column. Chem Eng J 295:92–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Akhond M et al (2006) Di (n-propyl) thiuram disulfide bonded on silica gel as a new sorbent for separation, preconcentration, and measurement of silver ion from aqueous samples. Sep Purif Technol 52(1):53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Alamdarnejad G et al (2013) Synthesis and characterization of thiolated carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-cyclodextrin nanoparticles as a drug delivery vehicle for albendazole. J Mater Sci Mater Med 24(8):1939–1949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Al-Daous MA, Ali SA (2012) Deep desulfurization of gas oil over NiMo catalysts supported on alumina–zirconia composites. Fuel 97:662–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Alothman Z (2012) A review: fundamental aspects of silicate mesoporous materials. Materials 5(12):2874–2902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Al-Riyami HH, Jahan S, Dwivedi PB (2014) Treatment of battery wastewater using meranti wood sawdust as adsorbent. In: International conference on advances in agricultural, biological & environmental sciences (AABES-2014), DubaiGoogle Scholar
  13. Alsewailem FD, Aljlil SA (2013) Recycled polymer/clay composites for heavy-metals adsorption. Mater Technol 47:525–529Google Scholar
  14. Amarasekara AS, Owereh OS, Aghara SK (2009) Synthesis of 4-acylpyrazolone Schiff base ligand grafted silica and selectivity in adsorption of lanthanides from aqueous solutions. J Rare Earths 27(5):870–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Amer MW, Khalili FI, Awwad AM (2010) Adsorption of lead, zinc and cadmium ions on polyphosphate-modified kaolinite clay. J Environ Chem Ecotoxicol 2:001–008Google Scholar
  16. Anbia M, Pazoki H (2015) Enhancement of methane adsorption by lithium doping into metal-organic framework Cu-BDC. J Appl Chem Res 9(1):73–81Google Scholar
  17. Aoki N et al (2007) Adsorption of 4-nonylphenol ethoxylates onto insoluble chitosan beads bearing cyclodextrin moieties. J Incl Phenom Macrocycl Chem 57(1–4):237–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Apreutesei RE, Catrinescu C, Teodosiu C (2008) Surfactant-modified natural zeolites for environmental applications in water purification. Environ Eng Manag J (EEMJ) 7(2):149–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bahrami SH, Mirzaie Z (2011) Polypropylene/modified nanoclay composite-processing and dye ability properties. World Appl Sci J 13(3):493–501Google Scholar
  20. Barrer R (1978) Zeolites and clay minerals as sorbents and molecular sievesGoogle Scholar
  21. Bayramoglu G et al (2013) Removal of textile dyes from aqueous solution using amine-modified plant biomass of A. caricum: equilibrium and kinetic studies. Water Air Soil Pollut 224(8):1640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bedin S et al (2013) Adsorption of toluene in batch system in natural clay and organoclay. Chem Eng Trans 32:1–6Google Scholar
  23. Bendenia S et al (2011) Adsorptive properties of X zeolites modified by transition metal cation exchange. Adsorption 17(2):361–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Binoy S, et al (2010) Adsorption of phenol by HDTMA-modified organoclay. In: Proceedings of the 19th world congress of Soil science: soil solutions for a changing world, Brisbane, 1–6 August 2010. Symposium 2.4. 2 Soil minerals and contaminants. International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS), C/O Institut für Bodenforschung, Universität für BodenkulturGoogle Scholar
  25. Bish LW, Ming DW (2001) Applications of natural zeolites in water and wastewater treatment. Natur Zeolites Occurrence Prop Appl 45:519Google Scholar
  26. Borges ME et al (2016) Photocatalysis with solar energy: sunlight-responsive photocatalyst based on TiO2 loaded on a natural material for wastewater treatment. Sol Energy 135:527–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Botas J et al (2010) Influence of metal doping of a MOF-74 framework on hydrogen adsorption. Report Nr.: Schriften des Forschungszentrums Jülich/Energy & EnvironmentGoogle Scholar
  28. Bothiraja C et al (2014) Chitosan coated layered clay montmorillonite nanocomposites modulate oral delivery of paclitaxel in colonic cancer. Mater Technol 29(sup3):B120–B126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Breck D (1964) Crystalline molecular sieves. J. Chem. Edu. 41:678Google Scholar
  30. Brozek CK et al (2015) Dynamic DMF binding in MOF-5 enables the formation of metastable cobalt-substituted MOF-5 analogues. ACS Cent Sci 1(5):252–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Buranaboripan W (2014) Study on synthesis of β-cyclodextrin linked chitosan derivatives with different linkers and removal of dyesGoogle Scholar
  32. Buranaboripan W et al (2014) Preparation and characterization of polymeric host molecules, β-cyclodextrin linked chitosan derivatives having different linkers. Int J Biol Macromol 69: 27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Calabretta MK, Kumar A, McDermott AM, Cai C (2007) Antibacterial activities of poly(amidoamine) dendrimers terminated with amino and poly(ethylene glycol) groups. Biomacromolecules 8:1807–1811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Catts JG, Langmuir D (1986) Adsorption of Cu, Pb and Zn by δMnO2 applicability of the site binding-surface complexation model. Appl Geochem 1:255–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cavenati S, Carlos A et al (2006) Removal of carbon dioxide from natural gas by vacuum pressure swing adsorption. Energy Fuels 20:2648–2659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chazarenc F et al (2010) Combination of slag, limestone and sedimentary apatite in columns for phosphorus removal from sludge fish farm effluents. Water 2(3):500–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Chen P, Mah T (1997) Synthesis and characterization of lanthanum phosphate sol for fibre coating. J Mater Sci 32(14):3863–3867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Chen J et al (2014) Amine-functionalized metal-organic frameworks for the transesterification of triglycerides. J Mater Chem A 2(20):7205–7213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Chen Q et al (2016) Adsorption of polyhydroxy fullerene on polyethylenimine-modified montmorillonite. Appl Clay Sci 132:412–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Chiang Y-C, Chen T-C (2010) Surface characterization and adsorption performance of electrochemically oxidized activated carbon fibers. J Environ Eng Manag 20:387–395Google Scholar
  41. Cojocariu A et al (2012) Chitosan/montmorillonite composites as matrices for prolonged delivery of some novel nitric oxide donor compounds based on theophylline and paracetamol. Cellul Chem Technol 46(1):35Google Scholar
  42. Daković A et al (2013) Zearalenone adsorption on a natural zeolite modified with different surfactants. Adsorption 5:6Google Scholar
  43. Das S (2010) Studies on intake efficiency of arsenic (V) by chemically modified silica gelGoogle Scholar
  44. de Mesquita JP, Martelli PB, de Fátima Gorgulho H (2006) Characterization of copper adsorption on oxidized activated carbon. J Braz Chem Soc 17:1074–1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. DeFever RS et al (2015) PAMAM dendrimers and graphene: materials for removing aromatic contaminants from water. Environ Sci Technol 49(7):4490–4497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Deng H et al (2010) Multiple functional groups of varying ratios in metal-organic frameworks. Science 327(5967):846–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Deng Y et al (2012) Highly efficient removal of tannic acid from aqueous solution by chitosan-coated attapulgite. Chem Eng J 181–182:300–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dey SC et al (2016) pH induced fabrication of kaolinite-chitosan biocomposite. Int Lett Chem Phys Astron 68:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dimirkou A, Doula MK (2008) Use of clinoptilolite and an Fe-overexchanged clinoptilolite in Zn2+ and Mn2+ removal from drinking water. Desalination 224(1–3):280–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dong-Lin J, Aida T (1997) Photoisomerization in dendrimers by harvesting of low-energy photons. Nature 388(6641):454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Doula M, Dimirkou A (2008) Use of an iron-overexchanged clinoptilolite for the removal of Cu 2+ ions from heavily contaminated drinking water samples. J Hazard Mater 151(2):738–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Du J, Zou G (2016) A novel microporous zinc(II) metal-organic framework with highly selectivity adsorption of CO2 over CH4. Inorg Chem Commun 69:20–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Dubeau MP, Guay I, Brzezinski R (2011) Modification of genetic regulation of a heterologous chitosanase gene in Streptomyces lividans TK24 leads to chitosanase production in the absence of chitosan. Microb Cell Factories 10(1):7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Dubois MAP (2000) Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: preparation, properties and uses of a new class of materials. Mater Sci Eng 28:1–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ebrahim AM (2013) Doping of metal organic framework (UiO) and for N02 adsorption at ambient conditionsGoogle Scholar
  56. Ebrahimi-Gatkash M et al (2015) Amino-functionalized mesoporous MCM-41 silica as an efficient adsorbent for water treatment: batch and fixed-bed column adsorption of the nitrate anion. Appl Water Sci 7:1–15Google Scholar
  57. Egbuna S, Ugadu E, Ujam A (2014) Effects of thermal activation on the physico-chemical properties of natural white clay as a local adsorbent. Int J Eng Sci Invent 3(11):37–48Google Scholar
  58. El-Reash YA (2016) Magnetic chitosan modified with cysteine-glutaraldehyde as adsorbent for removal of heavy metals from water. J Environ Chem Eng 4(4):3835–3847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Elsayed E et al (2017) CPO-27 (Ni), aluminium fumarate and MIL-101 (Cr) MOF materials for adsorption water desalination. Desalination 406:25–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Elsergany M, Shanableh A, Ahsan A (2016) Exploratory study to assess the impact of chitosan/bentonite ratio on the metal removal capacity of chitosan modified bentonite clay. Global NEST J 18(2):437–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Eltugral N, Simsir H, Karagoz S (2015) Preparation of nano-silver-supported activated carbon using different ligands. Res Chem Intermed 42(3):1663–1676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. El-Zahhar AA (2015) A polymer-organoclay nanocomposite for simultaneous removal of chromium (Vi) and organic dye. Eur Chem Bull 4(10–12):493–497Google Scholar
  63. Eprikashvili L et al (2016) Intensification of bioproductivity of agricultural cultures by adding natural zeolites and brown coals into soils. Ann Agrar Sci 14(2):67–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Etim I-IN et al (2015) Solar photocatalytic degradation of phenol using Cocos Nucifera (coconut) shells as adsorbent. J Chem Biochem 3(1):35–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Evans JC, Pancoski SE (1989) Organically modified clays. Transp Res Rec 1219:160–168Google Scholar
  66. Ezegbirika P, Nnaobi AF (2012) Effect of modified agricultural waste on heavy metal ions (groundnut husk). In: Chemistry Department. Federal College of Education (T), OmokuGoogle Scholar
  67. Fan J et al (2007) Preparation of xylenol orange functionalized silica gel as a selective solid phase extractor and its application for preconcentration – separation of mercury from waters. J Hazard Mater 145(1–2):323–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Farooq U, Khan MA, Athar M, Kozinski JA (2011) Effect of modification of environmentally friendly biosorbent wheat (triticum aestivum) on biosorptive removal of cadmium(II) ions from aqueous solution. Chem Eng J 171:400–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Feng T et al (2013) Removal of copper (II) from an aqueous solution with copper (II)-imprinted chitosan microspheres. J Appl Polym Sci 128(6):3631–3638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Fouladi Tajar A, Kaghazchi T, Soleimani M (2009) Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions on sulfurized activated carbon prepared from nut shells. J Hazard Mater 165(1–3):1159–1164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Frida E, Bukit N, Bukit BF (2014) Natural zeolite modification with a surfactant cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as material to filler in polypropylene. Chem Mater Res 6:34–41Google Scholar
  72. Gadzikwa T et al (2008) Covalent surface modification of a metal-organic framework: selective surface engineering via Cu(I)-catalyzed Huisgen cycloaddition. Chem Commun (Camb) 43:5493–5495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ganigar R et al (2010) Polymer–clay nanocomposites for the removal of trichlorophenol and trinitrophenol from water. Appl Clay Sci 49(3):311–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gao F (2004) Clay/polymer composites: the story. Mater Today 7(11):50–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. García-López D et al (2010) Effect of organic modification of sepiolite for PA 6 polymer/organoclay nanocomposites. Compos Sci Technol 70(10):1429–1436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. García-Sánchez JJ et al (2016) Modified natural magnetite with Al and La ions for the adsorption of fluoride ions from aqueous solutions. J Fluor Chem 186:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ge H, Hua T, Chen X (2016) Selective adsorption of lead on grafted and crosslinked chitosan nanoparticles prepared by using Pb2+ as template. J Hazard Mater 308:225–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Goncalves M et al (2013) A friendly environmental material: iron oxide dispersed over activated carbon from coffee husk for organic pollutants removal. J Environ Manag 127:206–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Goswami A, Sing AK (2002) 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone anchored on silica gel: synthesis and application as solid phase extraction for lead(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) prior to determination by flame atomic adsorption spectrometry. TalantaGoogle Scholar
  80. Grayson SM, Fréchet JM (2001) Divergent synthesis of dendronized poly (p-hydroxystyrene). Macromolecules 34(19):6542–6544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hall LD, Yalpani M (1980) Formation of branched-chain, soluble polysaccharides from chitosan. J Chem Soc Chem Commun 38(23):1153–1154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hena S, Atikah S, Ahmad H (2015) Removal of phosphate ion from water using chemically modified biomass of sugarcane bagasse. Int J Eng Sci 4(1):51–62Google Scholar
  83. Ibrahim WM, Hassan AF, Azab YA (2016) Biosorption of toxic heavy metals from aqueous solution by Ulva lactuca activated carbon. Egypt J Basic Appl Sci 3(3):241–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ijaola O, Ogedengbe K, Sangodoyin AY (2013) On the efficacy of activated carbon derived from bamboo in the adsorption of water contaminants. Int J Eng Invent 2(4):29–34Google Scholar
  85. Irannajad M, Kamran Haghighi H, Soleimmanipour M (2015) Zinc adsorption on modified zeolites by manganese and iron oxides. Hydrometallurgical Process 2:46–50Google Scholar
  86. Itodo A et al (2010) Physicochemical parameters of adsorbents from locally sorted H3PO4 and ZnCl2 modified agricultural wastes. N Y Sci J 3(5):17–24Google Scholar
  87. Jahromi S, Coussens B, Meijerink N, Braam A (1998) Side chain, dendritic polymers: synthesis and physical properties. J Am Chem Soc 120:9753–9762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Jenkins DW, Hudson SM (2001) Review of vinyl graft copolymerization featuring recent advances toward controlled radical-based reactions and illustrated with chitin/chitosan trunk polymers. Chem Rev 101(11):3245–3274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Jennifer Wilcox TDPS, Bao Z, He J, Haghpanah R, To J, Brannon Gary J, Lyons C (2014) Design and synthesis of nitrogen-doped porous carbon materials for CO2 capture and investigation of CO2 sorption kineticsGoogle Scholar
  90. Ji J et al (2014) Chemical modifications of chitosan and its applications. Polym-Plast Technol Eng 53(14):1494–1505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Jianchao Z, Pu L (2012) Progress on the chitosan-dendrimer hybrids. Chemistry 11:006Google Scholar
  92. Jiang Y et al (2007) Intensively competitive adsorption for heavy metal ions by PAMAM-SBA-15 and EDTA-PAMAM-SBA-15 inorganic–organic hybrid materials. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 103(1):316–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Johari K et al (2016) Adsorption enhancement of elemental mercury by various surface modified coconut husk as eco-friendly low-cost adsorbents. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 109:45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kalaruban M et al (2016) Enhanced removal of nitrate from water using amine-grafted agricultural wastes. Sci Total Environ 565:503–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kaushik N et al (2008) Studies on adsorption of triazine dyes by natural and chemical modified agro waste materials. Rasayan J Chem 1(4):819–827Google Scholar
  96. Kawai T (2013) Adsorption characteristics of polyvinyl alcohols on modified zeolites. Colloid Polym Sci 292(2):533–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Khachatryan SV (2014) Heavy metal adsorption by armenian natural zeolite from natural aqueous solutions. Chem Biol 2:31–35Google Scholar
  98. Khan Rao RA, Khatoon A (2016) Adsorption characteristics of chemically modified Caryota urens seeds for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solution: isotherms and kinetic studies. Groundw Sustain Dev 2–3:42–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Khan TA, Khan EA, Shahjahan (2016) Adsorptive uptake of basic dyes from aqueous solution by novel brown linseed deoiled cake activated carbon: equilibrium isotherms and dynamics. J Environ Chem Eng 4(3):3084–3095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kilinç A, Önal S, Telefoncu A (2002) Stabilization of papain by modification with chitosan. Turk J Chem 26(3):311–316Google Scholar
  101. Kim HR, Jang JW, Park JW (2016) Carboxymethyl chitosan-modified magnetic-cored dendrimer as an amphoteric adsorbent. J Hazard Mater 317:608–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ko NK, Kim JH (2011) Enhanced carbon dioxide adsorption on post-synthetically modified metal-organic frameworks. Bull Kor Chem Soc 32(8):2705–2710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kong L et al (2016) Removal of brilliant green from aqueous solutions based on polyurethane foam adsorbent modified with coal. J Clean Prod 137:51–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Krajišnik D et al (2010) Cationic surfactants-modified natural zeolites: improvement of the excipients functionality. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 36(10):1215–1224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Krishnan KA, Anirudhan TS (2002) Uptake of heavy metals in batch systems by sulfurized steam activated carbon prepared from sugarcane bagasse pith. Ind Eng Chem Res 41(20):5085–5093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Kumar M (2000) Nano and microparticles as controlled drug delivery devices. J Pharm Pharm Sci 3(2):234–258Google Scholar
  107. Kumar A, Jena HM (2016) Removal of methylene blue and phenol onto prepared activated carbon from fox nutshell by chemical activation in batch and fixed-bed column. J Clean Prod 137: 1246–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Lee CC et al (2005) Designing dendrimers for biological applications. Nat Biotechnol 23(12):1517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lee DY et al (2014) Enhanced photovoltaic performance of Cu-based metal-organic frameworks sensitized solar cell by addition of carbon nanotubes. Sci Rep 4:3930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Li X et al (1999) Synthesis of chitosan–sugar hybrid and evaluation of its bioactivity. Polym Adv Technol 10(7):455–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Li Y et al (2006) Effects of novel silane modification of zeolite surface on polymer chain rigidification and partial pore blockage in polyethersulfone (PES)–zeolite A mixed matrix membranes. J Membr Sci 275(1–2):17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Li J et al (2012a) Immobilization of a protease on modified chitosan beads for the depolymerization of chitosan. Carbohydr Polym 87(4):2697–2705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Li W et al (2012b) Adsorption of nitrate from aqueous solution onto modified cassava (Manihot esculenta) straw/Adsorpcja azotanów z roztworu wodnego na zmodyfikowanej słomie manioku Manihot esculenta. Ecolog Chem Eng S 19(4):629–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Li W-W, Guo Y, Zhang Z-T (2016) Porous tetrahedral Zn(II)-tetrazolate framework with highly adsorption selectivity of CO2 over N2. J Mol Struct 1125:777–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Liu F et al (2007) Adsorption selectivity of salicylic acid and 5-sulfosalicylic acid onto hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbents. Front Environ Sci Eng China 1(1):73–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Liu YQ et al (2013) Adsorption of Cr (VI) by modified chitosan from heavy-metal polluted water of Xiangjiang River, China. Trans Nonferrous Metals Soc China 23(10):3095–3103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Liu HC et al (2015a) Enhanced atrazine adsorption from aqueous solution using chitosan-modified sepiolite. J Cent South Univ 22(11):4168–4176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Liu J et al (2015b) Preparation and characterization of novel phenolic acid (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) grafted chitosan microspheres with enhanced adsorption properties for Fe(II). Chem Eng J 262:803–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. López E, Soto B, Arias M, Núńez A, Rubinos D, Barral MT (1998) Water Resour 32:1314–1322Google Scholar
  120. Lu T et al (2015) The loading of coordination complex modified polyoxometalate nanobelts on activated carbon fiber: a feasible strategy to obtain visible light active and highly efficient polyoxometalate based photocatalysts. Dalton Trans 44(5):2267–2275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Luzardo-Álvarez A et al (2012) Preparation and characterization of β-cyclodextrin-linked chitosan microparticles. J Appl Polym Sci 123(6):3595–3604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Ma B et al (2011) Removal of Co2+, Sr2+ and Cs+ from aqueous solution by phosphate-modified montmorillonite (PMM). Desalination 276(1–3):336–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Mahmoodi NM et al (2010) Single and binary system dye removal from colored textile wastewater by a dendrimer as a polymeric nanoarchitecture: equilibrium and kinetics. J Chem Eng Data 55(11):4660–4668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Mann KS, Heer MS, Rani A (2016) Investigation of clay bricks for storage facilities of radioactive-wastage. Appl Clay Sci 119:249–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Masooleh MS et al (2010) Adsorption of petroleum hydrocarbons on organoclay. J Appl Chem Res 4(14):19–25Google Scholar
  126. Matichenkov VV, Bocharnikova EA (2001) The relationship between silicon and soil physical and chemical properties (Chapter 13). In: Datnoff GHSLE, Korndörfer GH (eds) Studies in plant science. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 209–219Google Scholar
  127. Mazumdar S (2001) Composites manufacturing: materials, product, and process engineering. CRC Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Meng ZF et al (2009) Adsorption kinetics of phenol on organic modified Lou soil. Huan Jing ke Xue = Huanjing Kexue (Article in Chinese) 30(1):191–199Google Scholar
  129. Mersmann A, Kind M et al (2011) Thermal separation technology principles, methods, process design. Springer, HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Misra P et al (2016) Selective removal of nitrogen compounds from gas oil using functionalized polymeric adsorbents: efficient approach towards improving denitrogenation of petroleum feedstock. Chem Eng J 295:109–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Mockovčiaková A et al (2006) Iron oxide contribution to the modification of natural zeolite. Acta Montan Slovaca 11:353–357Google Scholar
  132. Mohamadreza M, Maryam K (2014) Absorption isotherm study of Mn2+ on MnO2 and FeO – coated zeolite from aqueous solution. Int J Adv Sci Technol 72:63–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Molina-Sabio M, Gonçalves M, Rodríguez-Reinoso F (2011) Oxidation of activated carbon with aqueous solution of sodium dichloroisocyanurate: effect on ammonia adsorption. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 142(2):577–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Moreno-Castilla C et al (1995) Activated carbon surface modifications by nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and ammonium peroxydisulfate treatments. Langmuir 11(11):4386–4392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Moreno-Castilla C, Carrasco-Marín F, Mueden A (1997) The creation of acid carbon surfaces by treatment with (NH4)2S2O8. Carbon 35(10):1619–1626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Moreno-Castilla C, Lopez-Ramon M, Carrasco-Marın F (2000) Changes in surface chemistry of activated carbons by wet oxidation. Carbon 38(14):1995–2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Morimoto M et al (2001) Biological activities of carbohydrate-branched chitosan derivatives. Biomacromolecules 2(4):1133–1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Mourya VK, Inamdar NN (2008) Chitosan-modifications and applications: opportunities galore. React Funct Polym 68(6):1013–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Mudasir M et al (2016) Adsorption of mercury(II) on dithizone-immobilized natural zeolite. J Environ Chem Eng 4(2):1839–1849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Mulfort KL et al (2009) Framework reduction and alkali-metal doping of a triply catenating metal-organic framework enhances and then diminishes H2 uptake. Langmuir 25(1):503–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Munthali MW et al (2015) Cs and Sr2+ adsorption selectivity of zeolites in relation to radioactive decontamination. J Asian Ceramic Soc 3(3):245–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Nemeth LT, Xu F (2014) Surface-modified zeolites and methods for preparing the same. Google PatentsGoogle Scholar
  143. Ngeontae W, Aeungmaitrepirom W, Tuntulani T (2007) Chemically modified silica gel with aminothioamidoanthraquinone for solid phase extraction and preconcentration of Pb (II), Cu (II), Ni (II), Co (II) and Cd (II). Talanta 71(3):1075–1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Nguyen QT, Baird DG (2006) Preparation of polymer–clay nanocomposites and their properties. Adv Polym Technol 25(4):270–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Nguyen ML, Huang C, Juang R-S (2016) Synergistic biosorption between phenol and nickel(II) from binary mixtures on chemically and biologically modified chitosan beads. Chem Eng J 286:68–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Nishad PA et al (2012) Cobalt (II) imprinted chitosan for selective removal of cobalt during nuclear reactor decontamination. Carbohydr Polym 87(4):2690–2696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Niu Y et al (2013) Adsorption of Pb (II) from aqueous solution by silica-gel supported hyperbranched polyamidoamine dendrimers. J Hazard Mater 244:276–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Olguin MT, Deng S (2016) Ce-Fe-modified zeolite-rich tuff to remove Ba(2+)-like (226)Ra(2+) in presence of As(V) and F(−) from aqueous media as pollutants of drinking water. J Hazard Mater 302:341–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Olu-Owolabi BI, Unuabonah EI (2011) Adsorption of Zn2+ and Cu2+ onto sulphate and phosphate-modified bentonite. Appl Clay Sci 51(1–2):170–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Park JH et al (2003) Synthesis and characterization of sugar-bearing chitosan derivatives: aqueous solubility and biodegradability. Biomacromolecules 4(4):1087–1091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Peng C, Chen Y, Tang M (2003) Synthesis and adsorption properties of chitosan-crown ether resins. J Cent S Univ Technol 10(2):103–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Peng G et al (2015) The surface characteristics of chitosan modified PSt-GMA microspheres influenced the interactions and properties of immobilized pepsin. J Macromol Sci A 52(1): 20–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Pietrzak R (2009) XPS study and physico-chemical properties of nitrogen-enriched microporous activated carbon from high volatile bituminous coal. Fuel 88(10):1871–1877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Pietrzak R, Nowicki P, Wachowska H (2010) Ammoxidized active carbons as adsorbents for pollution from liquid and gas phases. Pol J Environ Stud 19(2):449–452Google Scholar
  155. Poots VJP, McKay G, Healy JJ (1976a) The removal of acid dye from effluent using natural adsorbents – I peat. Water Res 10(12):1061–1066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Poots VJP, McKay G, Healy JJ (1976b) The removal of acid dye from effluent using natural adsorbents – II wood. Water Res 10(12):1067–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Priya UB (2014) Study of feasibility of soil as an adsorbent for textile industry effluent treatment. J Civ Eng Environ Technol 1(4):62–66Google Scholar
  158. Radi S et al (2014) Synthesis of 1-(Pyrrol-2-yl) imine modified silica as a new sorbent for the removal of toxic metals from aqueous solutions. J Mater Environ Sci 5:1280–1287Google Scholar
  159. Ramalingam Subramaniam SKP (2015) Novel adsorbent from agriculturalwaste (cashewNUT shell) formethylene blue dye removal: optimization by response surface methodology. Water Resour Ind 11:64–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Rivera-Utrilla J et al (2011) Activated carbon modifications to enhance its water treatment applications. An overview. J Hazard Mater 187(1):1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Rodrigues CO, Rubio J (2007) Adsorption of ions onto treated natural zeolite. Mater Res Iberoam J Mater. São Carlos 10(4):407–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Rosales-Landeros C et al (2013) A review on Cr(VI) adsorption using inorganic materials. Am J Anal Chem 04(07):8–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Sadeghi-Kiakhani M, Safapour S (2015) Eco-friendly dyeing of treated wool fabrics with reactive dyes using chitosanpoly(propylene imine)dendreimer hybrid. Clean Techn Environ Policy 17(4):1019–1027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Sadeghi-Kiakhani M, Safapour S (2016) Improvement of dyeing and antimicrobial properties of nylon fabrics modified using chitosan-poly (propylene imine) dendreimer hybrid. J Ind Eng Chem 33:170–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Sadeghi-Kiakhani M, Arami M, Gharanjig K (2013a) Application of a biopolymer chitosan-poly (propylene) imine dendrimer hybrid as an antimicrobial agent on the wool fabrics. Iran Polym J 22(12):931–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Sadeghi-Kiakhani M, Arami M, Gharanjig K (2013b) Dye removal from colored-textile wastewater using chitosan-PPI dendrimer hybrid as a biopolymer: optimization, kinetic, and isotherm studies. J Appl Polym Sci 127(4):2607–2619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Sahithya K, Das D, Das N (2016) Adsorptive removal of monocrotophos from aqueous solution using biopolymer modified montmorillonite–CuO composites: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Process Saf Environ Prot 99:43–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Saji George EKS, Luda C (2006) Chitosan modified halloysite nanomaterials for efficient and effective vaccine delivery in farmed fish. Int J Agric Biosyst Eng 10(7)Google Scholar
  169. Sakti SCW (2015) Development of magnetic separation using modified magnetic chitosan for removal of pollutants in solutionGoogle Scholar
  170. Salleh MAM et al (2011) Cationic and anionic dye adsorption by agricultural solid wastes: a comprehensive review. Desalination 280(1–3):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Salman JM (2014) Optimization of preparation conditions for activated carbon from palm oil fronds using response surface methodology on removal of pesticides from aqueous solution. Arab J Chem 7(1):101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Sarikaya Y et al (2000) The effect of thermal treatment on some of the physicochemical properties of a bentonite. Clay Clay Miner 48(5):557–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Sarkar M, Acharya PK (2006) Use of fly ash for the removal of phenol and its analogues from contaminated water. Waste Manag 26(6):559–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Sashiwa H, Aiba S (2004) Chemically modified chitin and chitosan as biomaterials. Prog Polym Sci 29(9):887–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Saygili H, Guzel F (2016) Effective removal of tetracycline from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) industrial processing waste. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 131:22–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Schütz T, Dolinská S, Mockovčiaková A (2013) Characterization of bentonite modified by manganese oxides. Univ J Geosci 1(2):114–119Google Scholar
  177. Sharma R et al (2013) Chemically modified silica gel with 1-{4-[(2-hydroxy-benzylidene) amino] phenyl} ethanone: synthesis, characterization and application as an efficient and reusable solid phase extractant for selective removal of Zn (II) from mycorrhizal treated fly-ash samples. J Environ Sci 25(6):1252–1261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. She Xiao-Yan WXR, Tian MA, Yu-Hong W, Xing-Chang Z (2015) Phosphorus adsorption characteristics of soft rock modified sandy soil. J Plant Nutr Fertil 21(5):1373–1380Google Scholar
  179. Shimekit B, Mukhtar H (2012) Natural gas purification technologies-major advances for CO2 separation and future directions. In: Hamid A. Al-Megren (ed.) Advances in natural gas technology. InTech. Rijeka, Croatia 235–270Google Scholar
  180. Shofiyani A et al (2015) Cadmium adsorption on chitosan/chlorella biomass sorbent prepared by ionic-imprinting technique. Indian J Chem 15(2):163–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Shu L, Schäfer A, Schlüter AD (2000) Dendronized polymers: increasing of dendron generation by the attach-to approach. Macromolecules 33(12):4321–4328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Sjoholm KH, Cooney M, Minteer SD (2009) Effects of degree of deacetylation on enzyme immobilization in hydrophobically modified chitosan. Carbohydr Polym 77(2):420–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Sperberga I et al (2015) Chemically and thermally activated illite clay from latvia/Ķīmiski un termiski aktivēts Latvijas illīta māls. Mater Sci Appl Chem 32(1):27Google Scholar
  184. Su-Hsia Lin A, Juang RS (2009) Adsorption of phenol and its derivatives from water using synthetic resins and low-cost natural adsorbents: a review. J Environ Manag 90:1336–1349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Tamayo A et al (2015) Mesoporous silicon oxycarbide materials for controlled drug delivery systems. Chem Eng J 280:165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Tang X et al (2013) Hg2+ adsorption from a low-concentration aqueous solution on chitosan beads modified by combining polyamination with Hg2+−imprinted technologies. Ind Eng Chem Res 52(36):13120–13127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Tojima T et al (1998) Preparation of an α-cyclodextrin–linked chitosan derivative via reductive amination strategy. J Polym Sci A Polym Chem 36(11):1965–1968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Toni Raabe RE, Kureti S, Krause H (2014) Oxygen removal during biogas upgrading using iron-based. AdsorbentsGoogle Scholar
  189. Torres E et al (2012) Enzymatic modification of chitosan with quercetin and its application as antioxidant edible films. Appl Biochem Microbiol 48(2):151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Torres CC et al (2016) PAMAM-grafted TiO2 nanotubes as novel versatile materials for drug delivery applications. Mater Sci Eng C 65:164–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Trinh QH, Kim SH, Mok YS (2016) Removal of dilute nitrous oxide from gas streams using a cyclic zeolite adsorption–plasma decomposition process. Chem Eng J 302:12–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Tripathi A, Rawat Ranjan M (2015) Heavy metal removal from wastewater using low cost adsorbents. J Bioremediation Biodegrad 06(06):1–5Google Scholar
  193. Tsubokawa N, Takayama T (2000) Surface modification of chitosan powder by grafting of ‘dendrimer-like’ hyperbranched polymer onto the surface. React Funct Polym 43(3):341–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Turan D et al (2014) Chitosan-immobilized pumice for the removal of As(V) from waters. Water Air Soil Pollut 225(5):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Unuabonah EI, Adebowale KO, Olu-Owolabi BI (2007) Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the adsorption of lead (II) ions onto phosphate-modified kaolinite clay. J Hazard Mater 144(1–2): 386–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Unuabonah EI et al (2010) Pb/Ca ion exchange on kaolinite clay modified with phosphates. J Soils Sediments 10(6):1103–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Velu S, Ma X, Song C (2003) Selective adsorption for removing sulfur from jet fuel over zeolite-based adsorbents. Ind Eng Chem Res 42(21):5293–5304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Vieira RHSF, Volesky B (2000) Biosorption: a solution to pollution? Int Microbiol 3:17–24Google Scholar
  199. Walton KS, Abney MB, Douglas LeVan M (2006) CO2 adsorption in Y and X zeolites modified by alkali metal cation exchange. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 91(1–3):78–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Wan L, Wang Y, Qian S (2002) Study on the adsorption properties of novel crown ether crosslinked chitosan for metal ions. J Appl Polym Sci 84(1):29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Wang C-J et al (2015a) One-step preparation of hydrophilic carbon nanofiber containing magnetic Ni nanoparticles materials and their application in drug delivery. J Colloid Interface Sci 440:179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Wang Y et al (2015b) pH-responsive glycol chitosan-cross-linked carboxymethyl-beta-cyclodextrin nanoparticles for controlled release of anticancer drugs. Int J Nanomedicine 10:7359–7369Google Scholar
  203. Water Treatment Using Carbon Filters: GAC Filter Information (2004) Available from: http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/hazardous/topics/gac.html
  204. Worch E (2012) Adsorption technology in water treatment: fundamentals, processes, and modeling. Walter de Gruyter, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Wu D et al (2015) Thermodynamic complexity of carbon capture in alkylamine-functionalized metal–organic frameworks. J Mater Chem A 3(8):4248–4254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Xu N et al (2015) Nitrogen functional groups on an activated carbon surface to effect the ruthenium catalysts in acetylene hydrochlorination. RSC Adv 5(105):86172–86178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Xue Q, Liu Y (2011) Mixed-amine modified SBA-15 as novel adsorbent of CO2 separation for biogas upgrading. Sep Sci Technol 46(4):679–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Yang G et al (2014) Amination of activated carbon for enhancing phenol adsorption: effect of nitrogen-containing functional groups. Appl Surf Sci 293:299–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Yang J-H et al (2016a) Drug–clay nanohybrids as sustained delivery systems. Appl Clay Sci 130:20–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Yang F et al (2016b) Mg–Al layered double hydroxides modified clay adsorbents for efficient removal of Pb2+, Cu2+ and Ni2+ from water. Appl Clay Sci 123:134–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Yang Z et al (2016c) A model of dynamic adsorption–diffusion for modeling gas transport and storage in shale. Fuel 173:115–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Yi Y et al (2007) The complex of crosslinked chitosan with 4′-formal benzo-15-crown-5 and palladium used as catalyst for asymmetric hydrogenation of α-phenylethanone. J Wuhan Univ Technol Mater Sci Ed 22(1):156–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Yi SS, Noh JM, Lee YS (2009) Amino acid modified chitosan beads: improved polymer supports for immobilization of lipase from Candida rugosa. J Mol Catal B Enzym 57(1–4):123–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Yin R et al (1998) Architectural copolymers: rod-shaped, cylindrical dendrimers. J Am Chem Soc 120(11):2678–2679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Yu S et al (2015) Degradation of chitosan by modified cellulase in the ionic liquid system. Catal Lett 145(10):1845–1850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Yuting W, Songqi G, Yurong T (2000) Synthesis of a novel chitoson-crown ether crosslinked compound and its adsorption properties. Environ Pollut Control Hangzhou 22(1):8–10Google Scholar
  217. Zettl B, Englmair G, Somitsch W (2015) An open sorption heat storage concept and materials for building heat supply. Energy Procedia 73:297–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Zhang Q et al (2013a) Polyamidoamine dendronized hollow fiber membranes in the recovery of heavy metal ions. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5(6):1907–1912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Zhang C et al (2013b) CO2 capture with activated carbon grafted by nitrogenous functional groups. Energy Fuel 27(8):4818–4823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Zhang L et al (2015a) Adsorption of Ni (II) ion on Ni (II) ion-imprinted magnetic chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol) composite. Colloid Polym Sci 293(9):2497–2506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Zhang D et al (2015b) Degradation of chitin and chitosan by a recombinant chitinase derived from a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish. Adv Microbiol 5(09):611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Zhang X et al (2016a) Simultaneous separation and purification of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate and caffeine from tea extract by size exclusion effect on modified porous adsorption material. J Chromatogr B 1031:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Zhang L et al (2016b) Coumarin-modified microporous-mesoporous Zn-MOF-74 showing ultra-high uptake capacity and photo-switched storage/release of UVI ions. J Hazard Mater 311:30–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Zhao M, Crooks RM (1999) Homogeneous hydrogenation catalysis with monodisperse, dendrimer-encapsulated Pd and Pt nanoparticles. Angew Chem Int Ed 38(3):364–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Zhao Z et al (2015) Competitive adsorption and selectivity of benzene and water vapor on the microporous metal organic frameworks (HKUST-1). Chem Eng J 259:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Zheng X, Wilkie CA (2003) Flame retardancy of polystyrene nanocomposites based on an oligomeric organically-modified clay containing phosphate. Polym Degrad Stab 81(3):539–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Zhou S, Xue A, Zhang Y, Li M, Li K, Zhao Y, Xing W (2015) Novel polyamidoamine dendrimer-functionalized palygorskite adsorbents with high adsorption capacity for Pb2+ and reactive dyes. Appl Clay Sci 107:220–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Zhu J et al (2009) Modifying activated carbon with hybrid ligands for enhancing aqueous mercury removal. Carbon 47(8):2014–2025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Zhu M et al (2016) Adsorption of naphthalene from aqueous solution onto fatty acid modified walnut shells. Chemosphere 144:1639–1645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Zimmerman SC et al (1996) Self-assembling dendrimers. Sci N Y Wash 271:1095–1098CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vipin K. Saini
    • 1
  • Aparajita Shankar
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Environment and Natural ResourcesDoon UniversityDehradunIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Environmental SciencesNew Jersey Institute of TechnologyNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations