# Deformation

Reference work entry

First Online:

**DOI:**https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73568-9_81

## Synonyms

Strain

## Definition

*Deformation*. Change in size, shape, and/or volume of an object under the effect of internal or external forces.

## Introduction

In continuum mechanics, as well as in engineering applications, deformation is often referred to as the
strain induced when external forces are applied to a body (e.g.,
compression, tension, shearing, bending, and/or torsion). However, deformation can be also induced by intrinsic body forces (e.g., gravity), as well as by changes in the temperature or by chemical reactions (Jones
2009). A straightforward example of deformation is shown in Fig.
1, where a force is axially applied to a rod. The strain (ε) occurring along the rod axis can be calculated as the change in length Δ

*L*with respect to the initial length:
$$ \varepsilon =\frac{\Delta L}{L_1}=\frac{L_2-{L}_1}{L_1} $$

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## References

- Hashiguchi K (2013) Elastoplasticity theory. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Jones RM (2009) Deformation theory of plasticity. Bull Ridge Corporation, BlacksburgGoogle Scholar
- Price DG, De Freitas MH (2009) Engineering geology: principles and practice. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar

## Copyright information

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