Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Peter T. Bobrowsky, Brian Marker

Databases

  • David Christopher EntwisleEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73568-9_80

Definition

An organized collection of related data and information.

Databases have been used for many hundreds of years, but the advent of the computer provided a mechanism for cost effective and efficient databases. They exist as a shared collection of logically related data and a description of the data, designed to meet the information needs of an organization. They are structured for efficient management, addition, editing, storage, and retrieval of data and information.

Data modeling is the process of defining and analyzing data requirements needed to support the design process stages: conceptual, logical, and physical representation of the model (Rasmussen 1995; Nayembil and Baker 2015).

Data models are logical, structured, representations of the things that need to be described in databases. The data structure is represented by entities, entity properties called attributes and the relationships between entities. An entityis a logically grouping of information about a “real...
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author thanks Martin Nayembil and Carl Watson for their help, ideas, and reviews. Published with the permission of the Executive Director of the British Geological Survey.

References

  1. Bland J, Walthall S, Toll DG (2014) The development and governance of the AGS format for geotechnical data. In: Toll DG, Zhu H, Li X (eds) Advances in soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering. volume 3: Information technology in geo-engineering. IOS Press, BV, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp 67–74. doi:10.3233/978-1-61499-417-6-67Google Scholar
  2. Codd EF (1970) A relational model of data for large shared data banks. J Comput Mach 13(6):377–387. doi:10.1145/362384.362685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Earth data Models website. www.earthdatamodels.org. Accessed May 2017
  4. Nayembil M, Baker G (2015) The role of data modelling in a modern geological survey. In: 17th annual conference of the International Association for Mathematical Geosciences, Freiberg, 5–13 Sept 2015. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/512308/
  5. Rasmussen K (1995) An overview of database analysis and design for geological systems. In: Giles JRA (ed) Geological data management. Geological Society Special Publication no. 97, Geological Society of London. pp 5–11. doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1995.097.01.02Google Scholar
  6. Self SJ, Entwisle DC, Northmore KJ (2012) The structure and operation of the BGS National Geotechnical Properties Database: version 2. British Geological Survey Internal Report IR/12/056. British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/20815/

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.British Geological SurveyNottinghamUK