Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Peter T. Bobrowsky, Brian Marker

Compaction

  • Abdul ShakoorEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73568-9_62

Synonyms

Densification; Soil stabilization

Definition

Compaction or densification is reduction in the volume of voids in a soil mass caused by rearrangement of soil particles by mechanical means.

Introduction

Compaction is used as a method of stabilizing soils, that is, improving their properties. Compaction is required when soils are used as a construction material in applications such as structural fill, highway and railroad embankments, earth dams and levees, cover and liner material for sanitary landfills, foundation material, and reclamation of mine waste embankments.

Compaction improves almost all desirable properties of soils. It reduces detrimental settlements, increases soil strength and improves its stability, improves bearing capacity, reduces permeability, and reduces volume changes due to frost action, shrinking, and swelling.

Compaction is measured in terms of dry density (ρ d), which is defined as the weight of solids (mineral particles) per unit volume. In the field or...
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References

  1. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) (2010) Annual book of standards. Section 4, Construction, 4.08, Soil and Rock (1). Conshohocken, PAGoogle Scholar
  2. Holtz RD, Kovacs WD, Sheahan TC (2011) An Introduction to geotechnical engineering, 2nd edn. Pearson, New York 853 pGoogle Scholar
  3. Leonards GA, Cutter WA, Holtz RD (1980) Dynamic compaction of granular soils. J Geotech Eng Div ASCE 106(1):35–44Google Scholar
  4. Lukas RG (1980) Densification of loose deposits by pounding. J Geotech Eng Div ASCE 106(GT4):435–446Google Scholar
  5. Lukas RG (1995) Dynamic compaction. Geotechnical Engineering Circular No. 1, FHWA Publication No. 1, Report No. FWHA-SA-95-037. Office of Technology Applications, Washington, DC, p 105Google Scholar
  6. Menard LF, Broise Y (1975) Theoretical and practical aspects of dynamic consolidation. Geotechnique XXV(1):3–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Proctor RR (1933) Fundamental principles of soil compaction. Eng News Rec 111 (9, 10, 12, and 13)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyKent State UniversityKentUSA