Water wells are dug, driven, bored, or drilled into the saturated zone of water-bearing formations (aquifers) to extract groundwater for drinking and irrigation (Barrocu 2014; Campbell and Lehr 1973).
Shallow water wells are excavated into loose and soft rocks by hand, or mechanically, mainly in unconfined aquifers. They are rarely deeper than 50–60 m, normally with a circular section of 1–3.5 m in diameter. Their walls are supported by masonry or a precast concrete ring lining to prevent collapsing. The lining often extends above the ground to prevent people from falling into the well and to reduce contamination.
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