Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Peter T. Bobrowsky, Brian Marker


  • Giovanni Barrocu
  • Saeid Eslamian
  • Kaveh Ostad-Ali-AskariEmail author
  • Vijay P. Singh
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73568-9_297


Wells are excavations into the Earth for developing groundwater, oil, brine, gas, and engineering geology operations (Driscoll 1986; Hunt 2005).

Water wells are dug, driven, bored, or drilled into the saturated zone of water-bearing formations (aquifers) to extract groundwater for drinking and irrigation (Barrocu 2014; Campbell and Lehr 1973).

Shallow water wells are excavated into loose and soft rocks by hand, or mechanically, mainly in unconfined aquifers. They are rarely deeper than 50–60 m, normally with a circular section of 1–3.5 m in diameter. Their walls are supported by masonry or a precast concrete ring lining to prevent collapsing. The lining often extends above the ground to prevent people from falling into the well and to reduce contamination.

In dug wells, if the water table becomes lower due to abstraction the well can be deepened or new wells can be dug (Fig. 1). In the ancient past, water was brought to the surface by buckets lowered into the well with a...
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni Barrocu
    • 1
  • Saeid Eslamian
    • 2
  • Kaveh Ostad-Ali-Askari
    • 3
    Email author
  • Vijay P. Singh
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering and Architecture, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of CagliariCagliariItaly
  2. 2.Department of Water EngineeringIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran
  3. 3.Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan (Khorasgan) BranchIslamic Azad UniversityIsfahanIran
  4. 4.Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering and Zachry Department of Civil EngineeringTexas A & M UniversityCollege StationUSA