Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Peter T. Bobrowsky, Brian Marker

Water

  • Saeid Eslamian
  • Saeide Parvizi
  • Kaveh Ostad-Ali-AskariEmail author
  • Hossein Talebmorad
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73568-9_295

Synonyms

Hydro

Definition

Water (H2O) each molecule consists of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms, connected by covalent bonds, forming a polar inorganic compound that is, at room temperature, a tasteless and odorless liquid, nearly colorless with a hint of blue. It covers more than 70% of the Earth’s surface. It is the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas in normal terrestrial conditions (Reece 2013).

Introduction

The word “water” comes from Old English “wæter,” from Proto-Germanic watar (source also of Old Saxon watar, Old Frisian wetir, Dutch water, Old High German wazzar, German Wasser, Old Norse vatn, Gothic wato “water”), from Proto-Indian European wod-or, suffixed form of root wed-… “water; wet.” Water is essential for life. With two thirds of the Earth’s surface covered by water and the human body consisting of 75% water, it is evidently clear that water is one of the prime elements responsible for life on Earth. However, contrary to the past, our...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Gohari A, Eslamian S, Mirchi A, Abedi-Koupaei J, Massah-Bavani A, Madani K (2013) Water transfer as a solution to water shortage, a fix that can backfire. J Hydrol 491:23–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Greenwood NN, Earnshaw A (1997) Chemistry of the elements. Butterworth-Heinemann, pp 620Google Scholar
  3. Perlman H, Cook J, Nieman A (1993) Water, the universal solvent. USGSGoogle Scholar
  4. Reece JB (2013) Campbell biology. Pearson, p 48Google Scholar
  5. Saccon P (2017) Water for agriculture irrigation management. Appl Soil Ecol:1–4Google Scholar
  6. Swanson HA, Baldwin HL (1965) A primer on water quality. U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  7. Toth J (1963) A theoretical analysis of groundwater flow in small drainage basins. J Geophys Res 68:4795–4812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [UNESCO] United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2001) Securing the food supply. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  9. Waller RM (1982) Ground water and the rural homeowner, Pamphlet U.S. Geological SurveyGoogle Scholar
  10. Wetzel RG (2001) Limnology lake and river ecosystem. Academic Press/A Harcourt Science and Technology Company, San Diego, pp 241–250Google Scholar
  11. Willmott CJ, Rowe CM (1985) Climatology of the terrestrial seasonal water cycle. J Climatol 5:589–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saeid Eslamian
    • 1
  • Saeide Parvizi
    • 1
  • Kaveh Ostad-Ali-Askari
    • 2
    Email author
  • Hossein Talebmorad
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Water EngineeringIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan (Khorasgan) BranchIslamic Azad UniversityIsfahanIran