Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Peter T. Bobrowsky, Brian Marker

Tunnels

  • William H. GodwinEmail author
  • Richard Escandon
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73568-9_287

Synonyms

Mine; Subway; Underground passageway

Definition

Tunnels are artificially constructed passageways beneath barriers such as a stream or other bodies of water, hill or other earthen structures, or a building. In all cases, a tunnel has a minimum of two openings, one for entry and another for exit, depending on the point of ingress and egress. A tunnel can convey fluids either by gravity or under pressure through either a lined or unlined excavation. Other uses are for motorized vehicular transport from one point to another where horizontal curvature or cultural restrictions prevent removal of overburden or the barrier in question. Simple uses include human passage. Tunnels can be built through rock, soil, or a combination of both in either an open-cut/cover arrangement or by means of mining using drill and blast, tunnel boring machine, or sequential excavation methods.

Introduction

Tunnels have their origin in the early industrialized world in urban settings where conventional...

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References

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CarmelUSA
  2. 2.KleinfelderRiversideUSA