The science and technique of making accurate measurements of the Earth’s surface.
Surveying includes data collection using appropriate instruments, data reduction to obtain useful information, and the establishment of location and size based on derived data. Surveying is generally classified based on the purpose of the resulting output or the method and instruments used for the survey. Some of the common surveying techniques based on the purpose relevant for engineering geology include topographic survey, cadastral survey, geodetic survey, engineering survey, and geological survey. Traditionally, surveying was performed using ground systems, which are now supplemented by aerial and satellite surveying methods.
Some of the early historic accounts of surveying are noted in Egypt. The geometrically accurate pyramids and the use of distant control points to replace property corners destroyed by the flooding of Nile River are examples of early Egyptian surveying. Followed by the...
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