Retaining structures are walls, dams, barriers, or bins that hold Earth materials or water in place or keep Earth materials or water from encroaching into an area. Retaining structures also are used to create stable surfaces for building pads, roads, bridge abutments, or wharves. Retaining structures can be used to limit the volume of excavations or to allow utilization of space near the boundary of a particular piece of land. Other structures that appear to be earth-retaining structures may have erosion protection as their primary purpose.
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- NAVFAC (1986) Foundations and earth structures. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, U.S. Department of the Navy, Alexandria, Virginia. Design Manual 7.02. http://www.geotechnicaldirectory.com/publications/Dm702.pdf. Accessed 15 Oct 2016
- USACE (1989) Retaining and flood walls. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC. Engineer Manual EM 1110-2-2502. http://www.publications.usace.army.mil/Portals/76/Publications/EngineerManuals/EM_1110-2-2502.pdf. Accessed 15 Oct 2016
- USACE (1994) Design of sheet pile walls. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC. Engineer Manual EM 1110-2-2504. http://www.publications.usace.army.mil/Portals/76/Publications/EngineerManuals/EM_1110-2-2504.pdf. Accessed 15 Oct 2016