Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Peter T. Bobrowsky, Brian Marker


  • K. S. Sajinkumar
  • Thomas OommenEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73568-9_221


Photogrammetry is a technique to obtain 3-dimensional measurements utilizing photographs as the fundamental medium for metrology (measurement).

The term, photogrammetry, was first used by the Prussian architect Albrecht Meydenbauer in 1867 during his work on some early topographic and elevation drawings (Albertz and Wiedemann 1996). The underlying principle used in photogrammetry is aerial triangulation. Photogrammetry relies on taking photographs from at least two different locations, which allows one to develop the “lines of sight” from each camera to points on the object. Further, the lines of sight are mathematically intersected to produce 3-dimensional coordinates of the points of interest.

From an early elementary use in topographic maps and elevation drawings, the applications of photogrammetry have now extended to diverse fields such as geology, engineering, architecture, industry, forensic, forensics, bathymetry, and medicine for the production of precise 3D data.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Albertz J, Wiedemann A (1996) From analogue to digital close-range photogrammetry. In: Proceeding of First Turkish-German Joint Geodetic Days, Istanbul, 1995, pp 245–253Google Scholar
  2. Bouali EH, Oommen T, Vitton S, Escobar-Wolf R, Brooks C (2017) Rockfall hazard rating system: benefits of utilizing remote sensing. Environ Eng Geosci 23(3):165–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Koschitzki R, Schwalbe E, Cárdenas C, Maas HG (2017) Photogrammetric monitoring concept for remote landslide endangered areas using multi-temporal aerial imagery. In: Geoscience and remote sensing (GRSS-CHILE), first IEEE international symposium, Chile, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  4. Luhmann T, Robson S, Kyle SA, Harley IA (2006) Close range photogrammetry: principles, techniques and applications. Whittles, DunbeathGoogle Scholar
  5. Mollard JD (2013) Airphoto and satellite imagery. In: Bobrowsky PT (ed) Encyclopedia of natural hazards. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 5–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Oats RC, Escobar-Wolf R, Oommen T (2017) A novel application of photogrammetry for retaining wall assessment. Infrastructures 2(3):10CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of KeralaThiruvananthapuramIndia
  2. 2.Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and SciencesMichigan Technological UniversityHoughtonUSA