Pressure exerted vertically or laterally on, and within, the ground.
Overburden pressure is the load caused by overlying materials on the ground causing an effective vertical stress in the ground. Effective lateral ground pressure is the horizontal effective pressure in the ground. The lateral ground pressure can be neutral, active, or passive. Virgin ground pressure is the ground pressure before any activity in a new project is undertaken also called “virgin pressure,” “virgin stress field,” or “virgin stress configuration.” “Active ground pressure” is the minimum possible pressure exerted on an object by the ground, whereas “passive ground pressure” is the maximum possible pressure caused by an object on the surrounding ground.
Ground materials are diverse and may be gases, fluids, solids (i.e., minerals, grains, and aggregates of grains or minerals), and any mixture of these and also include man-made ground, such as fills and waste dump materials. Ground is commonly...
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