Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Peter T. Bobrowsky, Brian Marker


  • Laurance DonnellyEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73568-9_201


Abstracting; Cutting; Digging; Dig-out; Excavating; Extracting; Hollowing; Quarrying; Removal; Scooping; Unearthing


Mining is the extraction or abstraction of mineral deposits from the surface or subsurface of the Earth.

Overview of Mining, Minerals, and Society

If it can’t be grown, it has to be mined”! Almost every item we use contains minerals. Society has been and continues to be dependent on minerals produced by mining. It could be argued that every material item in society is produced from a mineral or derived from a mineral product. Mineral resources are therefore likely to remain a fundamental necessity for society into the future.

Mining, like agriculture, represents one of the earliest activities of Homo sapiens. Evidence (stone tools) for mining extends back to Paleolithic times (ca. 450,000 yr. BP). Surface/underground mining in parts of Africa (e.g., Swaziland) dates back to 40,000 yr. BP. Fired clay pots in Czechoslovakia date back some 30,000 yr....
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Agricola G (1556) De Re Metallica. (trans: Hoover HC, Hoover LH, 1950). Dover Publications, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Anon (1987) Hydrogeology and stability of excavated slopes in quarries. Department of the Environment, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. Anon (2013) Health and safety at quarries. The quarries regulations 1999. Approved code of practice. Health & Safety Executive, HSE Books, UKGoogle Scholar
  4. Bell FG, Donnelly LJ (2006) Mining and its impact on the environment. Taylor/Francis (Spon), HobokenGoogle Scholar
  5. Bieniawski ZT (1989) Engineering rock mass classifications. Wiley-Interscience, p 272. The Dennsylvania State University, USA, ISBN 978-0-471-60172-2Google Scholar
  6. Construction Industry Research and Information (CIRIA) (2018) Abandoned mineworkings manual (RP940). CIRIA, London. (pending)Google Scholar
  7. CRISCO (2013) Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), 2006. International reporting template for the public reporting of explorations results, mineral resources and mineral reserves. ICMM, November 2013Google Scholar
  8. Hentschel T, Hruschka F, Priester M (2003) Artisanal and small-scale mining. Challenges and opportunities. Projekt-Consult GmbH, IIED, London. www.iied.org/mmsd
  9. Hustrulid WA, Bullock RL (eds) (2001) Underground mining methods: engineering fundamentals and international case studies. Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Engineering, LittletonGoogle Scholar
  10. Joint Ore Reserves Committee (JORC) (2012) Australasian code for reporting of exploration results, mineral resources, and ore reserves (The JORC Code)Google Scholar
  11. Kearey P, Brooks M, Hill I (eds) (2005) An introduction to geophysical exploration paperback. Wiley-BlackwellGoogle Scholar
  12. Marjoribanks R (2010) Geological methods in mineral exploration and mining, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin/HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Matheson GD, Reeves GM (2011) The identification, appraisal and assessment of hazards on quarry rock faces in terms of the UK quarries regulations. Q J Eng Geol Hydrogeol 44:259–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Moon C, Whateley MGC, Evans EM (eds) (2006) Introduction to mineral exploration, 2nd edn. Wiley-Blackwell, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  15. Piggott RJ, Eynon P (1978) Ground movements arising from the presence of shallow abandoned mine workings. In: Cardiff, Geddes JD (eds) Proceedings first international conference on large ground movements and structures. Pentech Press, London, pp 749–780Google Scholar
  16. Read J, Stacey P (2001) Guidelines for open pit slope design. CSIRO Publishing, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  17. Scoble MJ, Muftuoglu YV (1984) Derivation of a diggability index for surface mine equipment selection. Min Sci Technol 1:305–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Smith MR, Collis L (eds) (2001) Aggregates: sand, gravel and crushed rock aggregates for construction purposes, Engineering geology special publication, vol 17, 3rd edn. The Geological Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. Whittaker BN, Reddish DJ (1989) Subsidence: occurrence, prediction and control. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ManchesterUK