Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Peter T. Bobrowsky, Brian Marker


  • Jeffrey R. KeatonEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73568-9_144


  • Gradation in geology refers to a landscape-scale concept and a characteristic of clastic sediments and rocks.

  • Grading in geology refers to a characteristic of clastic sediments and rocks.

  • Gradation in engineering refers to a calculated parameter of coarse-grained soils.

  • Grading in engineering is also a general term used to refer to earthwork activities and the result of those activities that involve excavation of soil and rock and placement of excavated material in a controlled manner as fill (e.g., cut and fill).

  • Gradation at a landscape scale is a general term for the continuous processes that operate at the Earth’s surface that contribute to long-term, stable landscapes that are in equilibrium.

The equilibrium condition in landscapes is one in which Earth materials at some elevation tend to be broken into fragments or dissolved and transported to lower elevations where they are deposited or precipitated. Thus, high ground is worn away and low ground is buried in a...

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  1. ASTM (2009) Standard test methods for particle-size distribution (gradation) of soils using sieve analysis. American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM test designation D6913-04(2009)e1Google Scholar
  2. Hack JT, Goodlett JC (1960) Geomorphology and forest ecology of a mountain region in the central appalachians. U.S. geological survey professional paper 347, 66 p. https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/0347/report.pdf. Accessed 21 Jan 2018
  3. King PB, Neuman RB, Hadley JB (1968) Geology of the great Smokey Mountains National Park, Tennessee and North Carolina. U.S. Geological survey professional paper 587, Online version unpaginated. https://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/geology/publications/pp/587/index.htm. Accessed 21 Jan 2018

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Amec Foster WheelerLos AngelesUSA