Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Peter T. Bobrowsky, Brian Marker


  • Marko KomacEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73568-9_142


Geographic information system


A Geographic Information System (GIS) is an organized set of (i) geolocated (also georeferenced) datasets in different formats, (ii) computer hardware, software, applications, and procedures that allow data capture, storage, and processing (Kennedy 2001), and (iii) people involved in using the system. These components once combined enable effective usage of geolocated data for finding answers and solutions to spatially based challenges. GIS is an integral part of the Geographic information technology that uses computer-based tools to analyze spatial information (Leblon 2013). The key advantage of GIS is that it offers summarized geographically related replies to the end-users’ questions related to space such as “Where is it?” “What is it?” “Object’s shape and relation to neighbors?” “Object’s change through time?” and “What if…?”

In a general sense, the term GIS describes any information system that integrates, stores, edits,...

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Institute for Geo and Hydro Hazards - RIGHTUniversity of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic EngineeringLjubljanaSlovenia