Energy Governance in Belgium

  • Thijs Van de GraafEmail author
  • Erik Laes
  • Aviel Verbruggen
Living reference work entry


This chapter reviews the conditions, policies, and institutions of energy governance in Belgium. Except for coal, Belgium has no indigenous energy sources. Nuclear energy accounts for around half of Belgium’s electricity generation but all nuclear power plants are scheduled to phase out by 2025. Energy governance in Belgium is characterized by a lack of a strategic and coherent vision. The responsibilities for energy policy in Belgium are shared among the federal government and the three regions (Flanders, Wallonia, and Brussels). The distribution of competences is very heterogeneous and creates coordination problems. The main drivers of policy initiatives are European directives and international agreements. Belgium is currently not on track to meet its 2020 goals for energy efficiency and emission reductions. A major part of the explanation for Belgium’s weak performance is the dominant role of energy corporations in the Belgian energy sector.


Belgium Energy policy Federal state Nuclear phaseout Energy governance Low-carbon transition 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thijs Van de Graaf
    • 1
    Email author
  • Erik Laes
    • 2
    • 3
  • Aviel Verbruggen
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  2. 2.Sustainable Energy and Built EnvironmentVITO/EnergyVilleGenkBelgium
  3. 3.School of Innovation SciencesUniversity of EindhovenEindhovenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department Engineering ManagementAntwerp UniversityAntwerpBelgium

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