Zinc Sulfide Ceramics for Infrared Optics

  • Roy JohnsonEmail author
  • Papiya Biswas
  • Pandu Ramavath
  • Yashwant R. Mahajan
Living reference work entry


Zinc sulfide (ZnS) is a well-known wide gap semiconductor ceramic that finds application in infrared (IR) optics, electroluminescent devices, flat panel displays, and photocatalysis. This chapter presents an overview of ZnS ceramic as a candidate material for focusing on IR optics. Monolithic ZnS fabrication by various processes such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of high purity ZnS powders and also post-CVD thermal treatments under pressure and pressure-less conditions to enhance the transmission of desired wavelength ranges are attempted. Physico-chemical, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties of CVD, post-thermal CVD-processed, and powder-processed ZnS specimens are reported. The results were correlated with the type of process employed in addition to process parameters. The thermodynamic feasibility of the CVD reaction based on zinc and hydrogen sulfide was evaluated and deposition conditions along with flow parameters are elucidated. Physico-chemical and optical properties indicated the superiority of CVD processing in achieving optical quality ZnS. Single-step consolidation of ZnS powder under HIP conditions resulted in relatively low density along with the presence of minor quantities of hexagonal wurtzite phase, leading to relatively low transmission values. Unlike post-CVD thermal treatment under pressure-less conditions, the HIP eliminates not only zinc hydride but also the healing of residual micro-porosity, extending transmission to the mid-wave infrared and visible ranges. Microstructure of ZnS is significantly influenced by process conditions, which in turn dictate the mechanical properties.


Zinc sulphide Infrared optics Chemical vapour deposition Hot isosttic pressing Optical property 

List of Abbreviations

AR coating

Anti-reflection coating


Coefficient of thermal expansion


Chemical vapor deposition


Chemical vapor deposited zinc sulfide


Chemical vapor deposited and hot isostatic pressed zinc sulfide


Chemical vapor deposited and heat-treated zinc sulfide


Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy


Hot isostatic pressing


Hot pressing


Linear elastic fracture mechanism


Long wave infrared


Medium wave infrared


Powder hot isostatic pressed zinc sulfide


Scanning electron microscopy


Single edge notch beam


Zinc hydride


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roy Johnson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Papiya Biswas
    • 1
  • Pandu Ramavath
    • 1
  • Yashwant R. Mahajan
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Ceramic ProcessingInternational Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI)HyderabadIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Roy Johnson
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Knowledge Management of Nanoscience and TechnologyInternational Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI)HyderabadIndia

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