The Chinese Baseline Series

  • Ying Zou
  • Lin-Feng LiEmail author
Living reference work entry


Patch testing has been used in China for more than 30 years. However, there is no well-accepted evidence-based Chinese baseline series of allergens. There are many kinds of series, including some made in China in the market and all of those claimed to be the Chinese baseline series. In this chapter, the first evidence-based Chinese baseline series was proposed based on analysis of the published data. Articles published between 1987 and June 2018, in both Chinese and English language, regarding patch testing in mainland China were searched on Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and Wangfang Data, and PubMed. The allergens with a positivity rate of patch testing 1% or higher were considered to be a candidate for the baseline. Totally 3977 articles were found. After excluding those articles without complete or clear information, 253 studies (224 in Chinese and 29 in English) were included. The quality was poor for most studies, and relevance of patch testing was seldom analyzed. The top 32 common allergens with a prevalence of positive patch test reactions over 1% were nickel sulfate, potassium dichromate, cobalt chloride, fragrance mix I, thiomersal, carba mix, formaldehyde, para-phenylenediamine, Cl+Me-isothiazolinone, fragrance mix II, paraben mix, colophonium, balsam of Peru, hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde, ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, methyldibromo glutaronitrile, quaternium-15, tixocortol-21-pivalate, black rubber mix, sesquiterpene lactone mix, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, thiuram mix, benzocaine, wool alcohols, epoxy resin, neomycin sulfate, 4-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin (PTBP), mercapto mix, imidazolidinyl urea, N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-4-phenylenediamine, mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), and clioquinol. These allergens composed the main Chinese baseline series.


Patch test Chinese baseline series Nickel sulfate Potassium dichromate Cobalt chloride Fragrance mix Methylisothiazolinone TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) 

Supplementary material

27762_0_En_67-1_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (178 kb)
Appendix (PDF 179 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Skin & Cosmetic Research DepartmentShanghai Dermatology HospitalShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Department of Dermatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology Center, Beijing Friendship HospitalCapital Medical UniversityBeijingChina

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