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Headache

  • Steven J. ScrivaniEmail author
  • Steven B. Graff-Radford
  • Shehryar N. Khawaja
  • Egilius L. H. Spierings
Reference work entry

Abstract

Headache is defined as a pain in the region above the orbitomeatal line. Headache disorders are common and considered a major health problem that affects a large percentage of the population worldwide. The International Headache Society (IHS) has an updated classification of headache referred to as the International Classification of Headache Disorders III (ICHD-III). This classification divides headache into primary and secondary headache and, additionally, categorizes painful cranial neuralgias and other facial pain conditions. This chapter discusses the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management of the most common primary headache disorders (migraine headache, tension-type headaches, and trigeminal autonomic cephalgias) and important secondary headache disorders (headaches attributed to ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, trauma or injury to head and neck region, nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage, giant cell arteritis, increase or decrease in cerebrospinal fluid, and intracranial neoplasia). In addition, it reviews the association between headache and temporomandibular disorders.

Keywords

Primary headache disorders Migraine Tension-type headaches Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias Secondary headache disorders Cluster headache Hemicrania continua Paroxysmal hemicrania Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks 

Notes

Dedication

This chapter is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Steven B. Graff-Radford, a dear friend, colleague and leader in the field of headache medicine and orofacial pain. His knowledge, teaching and guidance will be missed. His friendship with me will also be missed.

Steven J. Scrivani

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven J. Scrivani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Steven B. Graff-Radford
    • 2
  • Shehryar N. Khawaja
    • 3
  • Egilius L. H. Spierings
    • 4
  1. 1.Chief, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Pain, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Director, Division of Headache and Orofacial Pain, Pain CenterCedar Sinai Medical CenterLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Resident, Orofacial Pain Program, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  4. 4.Professor, Craniofacial Pain Center, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Headache and Facial Pain Program, Department of NeurologyTufts Medical Center and Tufts School of MedicineBostonUSA

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