Headache is defined as a pain in the region above the orbitomeatal line. Headache disorders are common and considered a major health problem that affects a large percentage of the population worldwide. The International Headache Society (IHS) has an updated classification of headache referred to as the International Classification of Headache Disorders III (ICHD-III). This classification divides headache into primary and secondary headache and, additionally, categorizes painful cranial neuralgias and other facial pain conditions. This chapter discusses the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management of the most common primary headache disorders (migraine headache, tension-type headaches, and trigeminal autonomic cephalgias) and important secondary headache disorders (headaches attributed to ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, trauma or injury to head and neck region, nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage, giant cell arteritis, increase or decrease in cerebrospinal fluid, and intracranial neoplasia). In addition, it reviews the association between headache and temporomandibular disorders.
KeywordsPrimary headache disorders Migraine Tension-type headaches Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias Secondary headache disorders Cluster headache Hemicrania continua Paroxysmal hemicrania Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks
This chapter is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Steven B. Graff-Radford, a dear friend, colleague and leader in the field of headache medicine and orofacial pain. His knowledge, teaching and guidance will be missed. His friendship with me will also be missed.
Steven J. Scrivani
- Bousser MG, Good J, Kittner SJ, Silberstein SD. Headache associated with vascular disorders. In: Wolff’s headache and other head Pain. New York: Oxford University Press; 2001. p. 349–92.Google Scholar
- Dodick DW. Diagnosing headache: clinical clues and clinical rules. Adv Stud Med. 2003;3(2):87–92.Google Scholar
- Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The international classification of headache disorders, (3rd edition). Cephalalgia. 2018;38(1):1–211. https://doi.org/10.1177/0333102417738202.
- La Jolla Donald J. Wolff’s headache and other head pain. New York: Oxford University Press; 2001.Google Scholar
- Schiffman E, Ohrbach R, Truelove E, Look J, Anderson G, Goulet JP, List T, Svensson P, Gonzalez Y, Lobbezoo F, Michelotti A, Brooks SL, Ceusters W, Drangsholt M, Ettlin D, Gaul C, Goldberg LJ, Haythornthwaite JA, Hollender L, Jensen R, John MT, De Laat A, de Leeuw R, Maixner W, van der Meulen M, Murray GM, Nixdorf DR, Palla S, Petersson A, Pionchon P, Smith B, Visscher CM, Zakrzewska J, Dworkin SF. Diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (DC/TMD) for clinical and research applications: recommendations of the international RDC/TMD consortium network* and orofacial pain special interest Groupdagger. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2014;28(1):6–27.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Silberstein SD, Holland S, Freitag F, Dodick DW, Argoff C, Ashman E, Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Headache Society. Evidence-based guideline update: pharmacologic treatment for episodic migraine prevention in adults: report of the quality standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of neurology and the American headache society. Neurology. 2012;78(17):1337–45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Slade GD, Bair E, By K, Mulkey F, Baraian C, Rothwell R, Reynolds M, Miller V, Gonzalez Y, Gordon S, Ribeiro-Dasilva M, Lim PF, Greenspan JD, Dubner R, Fillingim RB, Diatchenko L, Maixner W, Dampier D, Knott C, Ohrbach R. Study methods, recruitment, sociodemographic findings, and demographic representativeness in the OPPERA study. J Pain. 2011;12(11 Suppl):T12–26.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar