Controllers Using the Saturation of Iron for AC Network Control

  • David J. YoungEmail author
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Part of the CIGRE Green Books book series (CIGREGB)


Before the advent of FACTS controllers, breaker-switched capacitors and inductors were used to provide a stepwise balance of vars (reactive power) for transmission and distribution systems; synchronous compensators were installed at some substations to provide a continuously variable reactive power output, but these machines were expensive and needed regular maintenance.

Prior to the availability of power electronic devices, Dr. E S Friedlander developed the first static voltage stabilizers, based on the properties and characteristics of saturated iron. Similarly to synchronous compensators, these “static var compensators” (SVCs) had a continuously variable output, but they were capable of a much faster response than synchronous compensators and had other advantages. For over two decades, they found widespread use in transmission and distribution systems. This chapter describes saturated reactor-based var controllers and provides application examples.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ConsultantStaffordUK

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