Advertisement

Technical Description of Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors (TCSC)

  • Stig NilssonEmail author
  • Marcio Oliveira
Living reference work entry

Latest version View entry history

  • 10 Downloads
Part of the CIGRE Green Books book series (CIGREGB)

Abstract

Thyristor-controlled series compensation (TCSC) systems and thyristor switched series compensation (TSSC) systems are power electronic systems developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s in response to the anticipated need for better utilization of existing high voltage overhead transmission lines because of the difficulties in getting approval for building new lines. The actual experience has been that TCSC systems are primarily being applied in areas with high growth rates where there is a need for long, high voltage ac transmission lines. However, even in areas with existing high power lines imbedded in the ac power system, the load carrying capacity of the lines can be improved by using fixed or switched series capacitor compensation systems. The inherent risks associated with increased loading of existing lines is that if the power system were to be subjected to severe disturbances, there might be a wide spread blackout. TCSC systems represent a tool to manage disturbances and to avoid blackouts by quickly rerouting the power flows from the high stressed lines to lines with the ability to carry higher loads and thereby avoiding blackouts. TCSC systems have been applied to enable construction of long ac lines, which would be unstable if the TCSC systems were not installed. That is, TCSC systems have been proven to be a powerful tool to enhance the stability of the ac systems and even to provide damping of subsynchronous oscillations where the use of fixed series capacitor (FSC) installation could have caused subsynchronous resonance endangering the reliability of large steam turbine generators.

The design requirements for the TCSC FACTS controller are discussed in this chapter. The fundamental operating principles of TCSC systems, the key TCSC design aspects, standards, and other documents, which would be useful to have by those who procure, maintain, or operate a TCSC system are also discussed in this chapter.

References

  1. Agrawal, B.L., Framer, R.G.: Use of frequency scanning technique for subsynchronous resonance analysis. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. PAS-98, 341–349 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alimansky, M.I.: Application and performance of series capacitors. Gen. Electr. Rev. 33, 616–625 (1930)Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, P.M., Farmer, R.G.: Series capacitor studies, testing and maintenance, chapter 8. In: Series Compensation of Power Systems. Published by PBLSH! Inc., Encinitas, California, 92024-3749, USA, (1996a)Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, P.M., Farmer, R.G.: Subsynchronous resonance; Chapter 6, pages 229 to 286. In: Series Capacitor Studies, Testing and Maintenance, Chapter 8. In: Series Compensation of Power Systems. Published by PBLSH! Inc., Encinitas, California, 92024-3749, USA, (1996b)Google Scholar
  5. Ängquist, L.: Synchronous Voltage Reversal (SVR) scheme – a new control method for thyristor controlled series capacitors, pages 30–1 through 30–14. In: Proceedings: FACTS Conference 3, EPRI report TR-107955 (1997)Google Scholar
  6. Ängquist, L.: Synchronous Voltage Reversal Control of Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor. Ph.D. thesis. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (2002)Google Scholar
  7. Ängquist, L., Ingeström, G., Jönsson, H.-Å.: Dynamical Performance of TCSC Schemes. CIGRÉ paper 14-302 (1996)Google Scholar
  8. Bodine, R.W., Concordia, C., Kron, G.: Self-excited oscillations of capacitor compensated long distance transmission systems. Trans. Am. Inst. Electr. Eng. 62(1), 41–44 (1943)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bowler, C.E.J: Series capacitor based SSR mitigation prospects. In: Proceedings: FACTS Conference 1 – The Future in High-Voltage Transmission. pages 2.2–1 through 2.2–16, EPRI report TR-100504 (1992)Google Scholar
  10. Bowler, E.J., Baker, D.H., Grande-Moran, C.: FACTS and SSR – focus on TCSC application and mitigation of SSR problems. Chapter 1.3, pages 1.3–1 through 1.3–25. In: Proceedings: FACTS Conference 2, EPRI Report TR-101784 (1992)Google Scholar
  11. Butler, J.W., Concordia, C.: Analysis of series capacitor application problems. AIEE Trans. 56, 975 (1937)Google Scholar
  12. Christl, N., Hedin, R., Sadak Lutzelberger, K.P., Krause, P.E., McKenna, S.M., Montoya, A.H., Torgerson, D.: Advanced Series Compensation (ASC) with Thyristor Controlled Impedance, CIGRÉ paper 14/37/38-05 (1992)Google Scholar
  13. CIGRÉ TB 111: Analysis and Control of Power System Oscillations (1996)Google Scholar
  14. CIGRÉ TB 123: Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation (1997)Google Scholar
  15. CIGRÉ TB 145: Modeling of Power Electronics Equipment (Facts) in Load Flow and Stability Programs (1999)Google Scholar
  16. Cigré TB 25: Working Group 38-01, Task Force No. 2 on SVC, “Static Var Compensator” (1986)Google Scholar
  17. CIGRÉ TB 544: MO Surge Arrester Stresses and Test Procedures. (2013)Google Scholar
  18. CIGRÉ TB 554: Performance Evaluation and Applications Review of Existing Thyristor Control Series Capacitor Devices –TCSC (2013)Google Scholar
  19. Concordia, C., Carter, G.K.: Negative damping of electrical machinery. Trans. Am. Inst. Electr. Eng. 60(3) (1941)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. EPRI EL-6943: Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) Scoping Study, Volume 2, Part 1: Analytical Studies; EPRI Report (1991). https://www.epri.com/#/pages/product/EL-6943-V2P1/?lang=en-US. Accessed 7 Jan 2019
  21. Gama, C., Leoni, R.L., Gribel, J., Fraga, R., Eiras, M.J., Ping, W., Ricardo, A., Cavalcanti, Tenório, R.: Brazilian North-South Interconnection – Application of Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC) to Damp Inter-Area Oscillation Mode. CIGRÉ paper 14-101, Session (1998)Google Scholar
  22. Gama, C., Ängquist, L., Ingeström, G., Noroozian, M.: Commissioning and Operative Experience of TCSC for Damping Power Oscillation in the Brazilian North-South Interconnection, CIGRÉ paper 14-104, Session (2000)Google Scholar
  23. Grünbaum, R., Ingeström, G., Strömberg, G., Chakraborty, S., Nayak, R.N., Seghal, Y.K., Sen, K.: TCSC on an AC power interconnector between the Eastern and Western grids of India – A few design aspects. CIGRÉ paper B4-310, Session (2006)Google Scholar
  24. Hedin, R.A., Henn, V., Montoya, A.H., Torgersen, D.R., Weiss, S.: Advanced series compensation (ASC): Transient network analyzer studies compared with digital simulation studies, pages 3.6–1 through 3.6–15. In: EPRI TR-101784, Proceedings: FACTS Conference 2 (1992)Google Scholar
  25. Hedin, R.A., Weiss, S., Mah, D., Cope, L.: Thyristor controlled series compensation to avoid SSR, pages 31–1 through 31–8. In: Proceedings: FACTS Conference 3, EPRI report TR-107955 (1997)Google Scholar
  26. Hill, A.T., Larsen, E.V., Hyman, E.: Thyristor control for SSR suppression – A case study: Chapter 20, pages 20–1 through 20–17. In: EPRI Report TR-10755, Proceedings: FACTS Conference 3 (1997)Google Scholar
  27. Hingorani, N.G., Bhargava, B., Garrigue, G.F., G. D. Rodriguez: Prototype NGH subsynchronous resonance damping scheme. Part I. Field installation and operating experience, 87 WM 019-3, pp. 1034–1039 (1987)Google Scholar
  28. Holmberg, D., Danielsson, M., Halvarsson, P., Ängquist, L.: The stöde thyristor controlled series capacitor. CIGRÉ paper 14-105, Session (1998)Google Scholar
  29. IEC 60071-1; Insulation Co-ordination – Part 1: Definitions, Principles and Rules (2015)Google Scholar
  30. IEC 60143-1: Series Capacitors for Power Systems, Part 1: General, International (2015)Google Scholar
  31. IEC standard IEC 60143-2; Series Capacitors for Power Systems, Part 2: Protective equipment for series capacitor banks; IEC is International Electrotechnical Commission (2012)Google Scholar
  32. IEC 60143-4; Series Capacitors for Power Systems, Part 4: Thyristor controlled series capacitors (2010)Google Scholar
  33. IEC 62823; Thyristor valves for thyristor controlled series capacitors (TCSC) – Electrical testing; Standard (2015)Google Scholar
  34. IEEE 824-2005: IEEE Standard for Series Capacitor Banks in Power Systems, year (2005)Google Scholar
  35. IEEE Committee Report: Reader’s guide to subsynchronous resonance. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 7(1), 150–157 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. IEEE Standard 1031-2011; IEEE Guide for the Functional Specification of Transmission Static Var Compensators (2011)Google Scholar
  37. IEEE Standard 1534-2002; IEEE Recommended Practice for Specifying Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitors (2002)Google Scholar
  38. IEEE Standard 1534-2009: Subparagraph 5.3, basis for TCSC ratings. In: IEEE Recommended Practice for Specifying Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitors (Revision of IEEE Standard 1534–2002) (2009)Google Scholar
  39. IEEE Standard 1726-2013: IEEE Guide for the Functional Specification of Fixed-Series Capacitor Banks for Transmission System Applications; Publication Year (2013)Google Scholar
  40. IEEE Working Group 3.4.11: Modeling of metal oxide surge arresters; Transactions on power delivery, 7(1) (1992)Google Scholar
  41. Keri, A.J.F, Ware, B.J., Byron, R.A., Mehraban, A.S., Chamia, M., Halvarsson, P., Ängquist, L.: Improving Transmission System Performance Using Controlled Series Capacitors, paper number 14/37/38-07, CIGRE session (1992)Google Scholar
  42. Kilgore, L.A., Ramey, D.G., Hall, M.C.: Simplified transmission and generation system analysis procedures for subsynchronous resonance problems. Trans. Power Appar. Syst. PAS-96(6) (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kinney, S. J., Mittelstadt, W. A., Suhrbier, R. W.: “Test results and initial operating experience for the BPA 500 kV thyristor controlled series capacitor design, operation, and fault test results,” In: IEEE Technical Applications Conference and Workshops Northcon/95, Portland, OR, pp. 268–273 (1995)Google Scholar
  44. Kundur, P.: Subsynchronous oscillations, chapter 15. In: Power System Stability and Control. McGraw Hill (1994) ISBN 0-047-035958-XGoogle Scholar
  45. Larsen, E.V., Bowler, C.E.J., Damsky, B.L. Nilsson, S.L.: Benefits of Thyristor-Controlled Series Compensation. CIGRÉ Paper 14/37/38-04. Paris (1992)Google Scholar
  46. Larsen, E.V., Clark, K., Miske Jr., S.A., Urbanek, J.: Characteristics and rating considerations of thyristor controlled series compensation. IEEE Trans. Power Deliv 9(2) (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McDonald, D.J., Urbanek, J., Damsky, B.L.: Modeling and testing of a thyristor for thyristor controlled series compensation (TCSC). IEEE Transa. Power Deliv. 9(1) (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mittelstadt, W.A. B. Furumasu, B. P. Ferron, P., Paserba, J.J.: Planning and testing for thyristor controlled series capacitors. In: IEEE Special Publication 92-T-0465-5-PWR, Current Activity in Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) (1992)Google Scholar
  49. Mohan, N., Undeland, T.M., Robbins, W.P.: Thyristors, chapter 23, pages 596–612. In: Power Electronics Converters, Applications and Design, Second Edition. Wiley, New York (1995)Google Scholar
  50. Nolasco, JF., Jardini, JA., Ribero, E.: Electrical Design, Chapter 4, Section 4.7, Electromagnetic Unbalance – Transposition. In: CIGRE Green Book on Overhead Lines, CIGRE, Paris (2014)Google Scholar
  51. Nickle, C.A., Pierce, C.A.: Stability of synchronous machines as affected by armature resistance. AIEE Trans. 49, 338–350. with discussion on age 350 (1930)Google Scholar
  52. Nyati, S., Wegner, C.A., Delmerico, R.W., Baker, D.H., Piwko, R.J. Edris, A.: Effectiveness of Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor in Enhancing Power System Dynamics: An Analog Simulator Study. IEEE Paper 93-SM-432-5-PWRD (1993)Google Scholar
  53. Paserba, J.J., Miller, N.W., Larsen, E.V., Piwko, R.J.: A thyristor controlled series compensation model for power system stability analysis. IEEE SP 94 SM 476-2- PWRD, (1994)Google Scholar
  54. Price, W.W., Klapper, D.B., Miller, N.W., Kurita, A., Okubo, H.: A Multi-Faceted Approach to Power System Voltage Stability Analysis. CIGRÉ paper 38–205, CIGRÉ Conference, Paris, France (1992)Google Scholar
  55. Sakshaug, E.C., Comber, M.G., Kresge, J.S.: Discussion to paper. In: Stenström, L., Lindberg, P., and Samuelsson, J.: Testing Procedure for Metal Oxide Varistors Protecting EHV Series Capacitors, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 3, No. 2 (1988)Google Scholar
  56. Sanchez-Gasca, J.J., D’Aquila, R., Paserba, J.J., Price, W.W., Klapper, D.B., Hu, I.: Extended-term power system dynamic simulation using variable time-step integration. IEEE Comput. Appl. Power Mag. 6(4), 23–28 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Shelton, E.K.: The Series- Capacitor Installation at Ballston, pp. 432–434. General Electric Review, New York (1928)Google Scholar
  58. Steinmetz, C.P.: Lectures on Electrical Engineering, vol. III. Dover Publications, New York (1971)Google Scholar
  59. Urbanek, J., Piwko, R.J., McDonald D., Martinez, N.: Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation Equipment Design for Slatt 500 kV installation, Chapter 3.1. In: Proceedings FACTS Conference 2, EPRI Report TR 101784 (1992). https://www.epri.com/#/pages/product/TR-101784/?lang=en. Accessed Sept 10 2018
  60. Urbanek, J., Piwko, R.J., Larsen, E.V., Damsky, B.L., Furumasu, B.C., Mittlestadt, W., Edan, J.D.: Thyristor controlled series compensation prototype installation at the Slatt 500 kV Substation. In: IEEE Transactions of Power Delivery, pp. 1460–1469. (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wagner, C.F.: Effect of armature resistance upon hunting of synchronous machines. AIEE Trans. 49, 1011–1026 (1930)Google Scholar
  62. Weston, J.F., Brigham, E.F.: The time value of money, chapter 4, pages 66–92. In: Managerial Finance, 7th Edn. The Dryden Press, Himsdale (1981)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electrical Engineering Practice, ExponentSedonaUSA
  2. 2.ABBVästeråsSweden

Personalised recommendations