Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions

Living Edition
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Nations and Nationalism

  • Arda GüçlerEmail author
Living reference work entry



Nations can be defined as political communities where free and equal citizens respect each other’s rights (Renan 1882). When the concept is defined in this civic manner, it comes closer to the idea of patriotism (Habermas 1996). However, a nation can also be defined as an ethnic community where its members share the same cultural traits and qualities (Kohn 1965). Here the nation becomes associated with emotional and visceral elements such as blood, kinship, religion, and symbols. This is known as the difference between civic and ethnic nationalism. It is important to keep in mind that these are nothing more than ideal types. Almost all practices of nationalism include some aspects of both paradigms even though one aspect (either civic or ethnic) might be more predominant than the other (Brubaker 1998).


The concept of nationhood generates many interesting...

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of International RelationsÖzyeğin UniversityİstanbulTurkey

Section editors and affiliations

  • Petra Schneider
    • 1
  1. 1.Department Water, Environment, Civil Engineering and SafetyUniversity of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-StendalMagdeburgGermany