Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Nations and Nationalism

  • Arda GüçlerEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71066-2_30-1

Synonyms

Definition

Nations can be defined as political communities where free and equal citizens respect each other’s rights (Renan 1882). When the concept is defined in this civic manner, it comes closer to the idea of patriotism (Habermas 1996). However, a nation can also be defined as an ethnic community where its members share the same cultural traits and qualities (Kohn 1965). Here the nation becomes associated with emotional and visceral elements such as blood, kinship, religion, and symbols. This is known as the difference between civic and ethnic nationalism. It is important to keep in mind that these are nothing more than ideal types. Almost all practices of nationalism include some aspects of both paradigms even though one aspect (either civic or ethnic) might be more predominant than the other (Brubaker 1998).

Introduction

The concept of nationhood generates many interesting...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Aciksoz SC (2015) Ghosts within: genealogies of war trauma in Turkey. J Turk Ottoman Stud 2(2):259–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson B (1991) Imagined communities: reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. Verso, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. Barry B (2001) Culture and equality: an egalitarian critique of multiculturalism. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  4. Billig M (1995) Banal nationalism. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Bloemraad I (2006) Becoming a citizen: incorporating immigrants and refugees in the United States and Canada. University of California Press, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonikowski B, DiMaggio P (2016) Varieties of American popular nationalism. Am Sociol Rev 81(5):949–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brass PR (1979) Elite groups, symbol manipulation and ethnic identity among the Muslims of South Asia. In: Taylor D, Yapp M (eds) Political identity in South Asia. Curzon Press, London, pp 35–68Google Scholar
  8. Breuilly J (1996) Approaches to nationalism. In: Balakrishnan G (ed) Mapping the nation. Verso, London, pp 146–175Google Scholar
  9. Brubaker R (1998) Myths and misconceptions in the study of nationalism. In: Hall A (ed) The state of the nation: Ernest Gellner and the theory of nationalism. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 272–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brubaker R (2013) Language, religion and the politics of difference. Nations Nationalism 19(1):1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Calhoun C (1993) Nationalism and ethnicity. Annu Rev Sociol 19:211–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eller JD, Coughlan RM (1993) The poverty of primordialism: the demystification of ethnic attachments. Ethn Racial Stud 16(2):183–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gellner E (1983) Nations and nationalism. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  14. Giddens A (1994) The nation as power container. In: Hutchinson J, Smith AD (eds) Nationalism. Oxford University Press, Oxford/New York, pp 34–35Google Scholar
  15. Goodhart D (2008) Has multiculturalism had its day? Lit Rev Can 16(3):3–4Google Scholar
  16. Habermas J (1996) Between facts and norms: contribution to a discourse theory of law and democracy. Polity Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Halla M, Wagner AF, Zweimüller J (2017) Immigration and voting for the far right. J Eur Econ Assoc 15(6): 1341–1385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Heath A (2007) Crossnational patterns and processes of ethnic disadvantage. In: Heath A, Cheung SY (eds) Unequal chances: ethnic minorities in western labour markets. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 639–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Howe P (2007) The political engagement of new Canadians: a comparative perspective. In: Banting KG, Courchene TJ, Seidle FL (eds) Belonging? Diversity, recognition and shared citizenship in Canada. Institute for Research on Public Policy, Montreal, pp 611–646Google Scholar
  20. Kedourie E (1994) Nationalism. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  21. Kohn H (1965) Nationalism: its meaning and history. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Kymlicka W (2001) Politics in the vernacular: nationalism, multiculturalism and citizenship. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lubbers M, Coenders M (2017) Nationalistic attitudes and voting for the radical right in Europe. Eur Union Polit 18(1):98–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McClintock A (1996) No longer in a future heaven: nationalism, gender and race. In: Eley G, Suny RG (eds) Becoming national. Oxford University Press, Oxford/New York, pp 260–284Google Scholar
  25. Miller D (1995) On nationality. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  26. Munck R (1986) The difficult dialogue: Marxism and nationalism. Zed Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. Nagel J (1998) Masculinity and nationalism: gender and sexuality in the making of nations. Ethn Racial Stud 21(2):242–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. O’Leary B (1996) On the nature of nationalism: an appraisal of Ernest Gellner’s writings on nationalism. In: Hall JA, Jarvie I (eds) The social philosophy of Ernest Gellner. Rodopi, Atlanta/Amsterdam, pp 71–112Google Scholar
  29. Özkırımlı U (2000) Theories of nationalism: a critical introduction. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Renan E (1990) [1882] What is a nation? In: Bhabha H (ed) Nation and narration. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  31. Shils E (1957) Primordial, personal, sacred and civil ties. British Journal of Sociology 8(2):130–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Smith AD (1986) The ethnic origins of nations. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  33. Tamir Y (1993) Liberal nationalism. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  34. Thomassen L (2017) British multiculturalism and the politics of representation. Manchester University Press, ManchesterCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. van den Berghe P (1978) Race and ethnicity: a sociobiological perspective. Ethn Racial Stud 1(4):401–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Walby S (1996) Woman and nation. In: Balakrishnan G (ed) Mapping the nation. Verso, London, pp 235–254Google Scholar
  37. Wang Z (2012) Never forget national humiliation: historical memory in Chinese politics and foreign relations. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. White J (2012) Muslim nationalism and the new Turks. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  39. Yuval-Davis N (1997) Gender and nation. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of International RelationsÖzyeğin UniversityİstanbulTurkey

Section editors and affiliations

  • Petra Schneider
    • 1
  1. 1.Department Water, Environment, Civil Engineering and SafetyUniversity of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-StendalMagdeburgGermany