Life on Land

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Stakeholder Engagement in Environmental Decision-Making Processes

  • Nataša LovrićEmail author
Living reference work entry



A stakeholder is any entity with a declared or conceivable interest or stake in a policy concern. The range of stakeholders relevant to consider for analysis varies according to the complexity of the reform area targeted and the type of reform proposed and, where the stakeholders are not organized, the incentive to include them. Stakeholders can be of any form, size, and capacity. They can be individuals, organizations, or unorganized groups. In most cases, stakeholders fall into one or more of the following categories: international actors (e.g., donors); national or political actors (e.g., legislators, governors); public sector agencies (e.g., interest groups); (e.g., unions, medical associations); commercial/private for-profit, nonprofit organizations (NGOs, foundations); civil society members; and users/consumers (World Bank 2007).

A stakeholder can be defined as: Any individual, community, group or organisation with an interest in the...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.European Forest InstituteJoensuuFinland

Section editors and affiliations

  • Adriana Consorte McCrea

There are no affiliations available