Life on Land

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Conservation of Mammals

  • David W. MacdonaldEmail author
Living reference work entry


Conservation geopolitics

The linkages between conservation outcomes and the political, social, and economic arrangements within and (resulting) relationships between countries.

Transdisciplinary conservation

The formidably potent intersection of top-down (nations) and bottom-up (citizens) approaches to wildlife conservation.


Transdisciplinary Conservation (Macdonald 2019) is the formidably potent intersection of top-down (nations) and bottom-up (citizens) approaches to wildlife conservation (Fig. 1). From both trajectories, and based on earthily evidence-based research, the goal is human behavior change. Rather than combining insights generated by separate academic disciplines (interdisciplinarity), transdisciplinarity works across disciplinary boundaries to generate holistic forms of knowledge (Macdonald 2019).
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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU), Department of Zoology, The Recanati-Kaplan CentreUniversity of OxfordTubneyUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Adriana Consorte McCrea

There are no affiliations available