Life on Land

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Forest Dependency: Status, Assessment Tools, and Influencing Factors

  • Mohammed A. S. Arfin-KhanEmail author
  • Md. Shamim Reza Saimun
Living reference work entry


Forest dependency loosely refers to the relationship between people and forest resources; it also indicates the reliance of people on forest resources for both livelihood and non-livelihood activities. Byron and Arnold (1997) argue that it is more appropriate to use the terminology of different types of forest users than “forest dependency.”

Forest-dependent people may be described as people who derive benefits from forest either directly or indirectly (Masozera and Alavalapati 2004); it generally embraces:
  • Traditional and indigenous communities living within the forest and almost wholly dependent on forest for their livelihood, for example, hunting, fishing, shifting cultivation, medicines, collecting various non-timber forest products, etc. (Chao 2012; Rahman and Ahmed 2016).

  • Farmers and other rural communities who are living near and around the forest and dependent on it to some extent for their livelihood, for example, as supplemental income (e.g., fuelwood) and other...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammed A. S. Arfin-Khan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Md. Shamim Reza Saimun
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Forestry and Environmental ScienceShahjalal University of Science and TechnologySylhetBangladesh

Section editors and affiliations

  • Sharif Ahmed Mukul
    • 1
  1. 1.Tropical Forests and People Research CentreUniversity of the Sunshine CoastMaroochydoreAustralia