Climate Action

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Immediate Climate Vulnerabilities: Climate Change and Planning Policy in Northern Communities

  • Derek MacdonaldEmail author
  • S. Jeff BirchallEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71063-1_85-1

Synonyms

Definitions

Abrupt or Rapid Climate Change

Abrupt, also referred to as rapid, climate change is the nonlinear application of expected climate forces that occur faster than anticipated, or the sudden occurrence of unexpected climate forces (Baede et al. 2014). These unexpected climate forces can have devastating effects for local communities, especially those on the coast (Birchall and Bonnett 2019, in review; Birchall 2019; Wallace 2017). While common coastal community climate change impacts such as sea level rise are more predictable in nature and can be monitored and prepared for over the long term, abrupt climate change impacts can be much more complex to predict, are highly localized (Sorensen et al. 2018), and often result in coastal communities resorting to reactionary measures in order to adapt.

Smaller communities are particularly vulnerable,...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. A Northern Vision (n.d.) Climate change impacts in the North. http://www.anorthernvision.ca/strategy/climatechange.html. Accessed 30 May 2018
  2. Baede APM et al (2014) Annex II Glossary. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Retrieved from https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr_appendix.pdf
  3. Berrang-Ford L et al (2011) Are we adapting to climate change? Glob Environ Chang 21:25–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.09.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Birchall SJ, Bonnett N (in review) Thinning sea ice and thawing permafrost: Climate change adaptation planning in Nome, Alaska. Environmental Hazards.Google Scholar
  5. Birchall SJ (2019) Coastal climate adaptation planning and evolutionary governance: Insights from Alaska. Marine Policy, Land and Sea Interaction Special Issue.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2018.12.029
  6. Birchall SJ, Bonnett N (2019) Local-scale climate change stressors and policy response: the case of Homer, Alaska. J Environ Plan Manag.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09640568.2018.1537975
  7. Bulkeley H, Tuts R (2013) Understanding urban vulnerability, adaptation and resilience in the context of climate change. Local Environ 18(6):646–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. CBC News (2018) Omnitrax to argue federal lawsuit over northern Manitoba rail line should be tossed. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/omnitrax-and-ottawat-court-1.4476974. Accessed 30 May 2018
  9. CentrePort Canada (2018) The inland port. http://www.centreportcanada.ca/the-inland-port. Accessed 30 May 2018
  10. Churchill Northern Studies Research Centre (n.d.) Research papers. https://www.churchillscience.ca/documents/CNSC-Literature.pdf. Accessed 30 May 2018
  11. Cunsolo-Willox A et al (2012) “From this place and of this place:” climate change, sense of place, and health in Nunatsiavut, Canada. Soc Sci Med 75:538–547.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.03.043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Derocher A (1993) Aspects of milk composition and lactation in polar bears. Can J Zool 71(3):561–567.  https://doi.org/10.1139/z93-077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Distasio J (2011) Churchill sustainability planning framework. Institute for Urban Studies, WinnipegGoogle Scholar
  14. Eakin H, Luers AL (2006) Assessing the vulnerability of social-environmental systems. Annu Rev Environ Resour 31:365–394.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.energy.30.050504.144352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Field CB (2014) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability: summary for policymakers. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, GenevaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ford J, King D (2015) A framework for examining adaptation readiness. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 4:505.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-013-9505-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ford J et al (2017) Readiness for climate change adaptation in the Arctic: a case study from Nunavut, Canada. Clim Chang 145(1–2):85–100.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-017-2071-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gibbs MT (2015) Coastal climate risk and adaptation studies: the importance of understanding different classes of problem. Ocean Coast Manag 103:9–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.10.018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Government of Canada (2013) Air pollution from recreation vehicles. https://www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change/services/air-pollution/sources/transportation/recreation-vehicles.html. Accessed 30 May 2018
  20. Government of Manitoba (2016) Manitoba’s beluga habitat sustainability plan. https://digitalcollection.gov.mb.ca/awweb/pdfopener?smd=1&did=24797&md=1. Accessed 30 May 2018
  21. Groulx M et al (2014) Research Paper: place-based climate change adaptation: a critical case study of climate change messaging and collective action in Churchill, Manitoba. Landsc Urban Plan 132:136–147.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.09.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hoye B (2017) With ice road complete, 1st haul of goods set to arrive in Churchill before christmas. CBC News. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/churchill-ice-road-1.4451279. Accessed 30 May 2018
  23. IPCC (2013) Summary for policymakers. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G-K, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Maru YT et al (2011) Current and potential applications of typologies in vulnerability assessments and adaptation science: climate adaptation flagship working paper #7. CSIRO climate adaptation flagship working paper series, 7. Retrieved from https://research.csiro.au/climate/wp-content/uploads/sites/54/2016/03/7_Typologies-Adaptation_CAF_pdf-Standard.pdf
  25. Montsion JM (2015) Churchill, Manitoba and the arctic gateway: a historical contextualization. Can Geogr 59(3):304.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cag.12199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. National Ocean Service (2017) What is glacial isostatic adjustment? https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/glacial-adjustment.html. Accessed 30 May 2018
  27. Nunavut Climate Change Centre (n.d.) Climate change impacts. https://www.climatechangenunavut.ca/en/understanding-climate-change/climate-change-impact. Accessed 30 May 2018
  28. Ouren DS et al (2007) Environmental effects of off-highway vehicles on Bureau of Land Management lands [electronic resource]: a literature synthesis, annotated bibliographies, extensive bibliographies, and Internet resources/by Douglas S. Ouren … [et al.]. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 2007. Retrieved from https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1353/report.pdf
  29. Parliamentary Information and Research Service (2011) Arctic marine and intermodal infrastructure: challenges and the Government of Canada’s response. https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-77-e.pdf. Accessed 30 May 2018
  30. Robertson D (2017) Future of Churchill hospital in question. Winnipeg Free Press. https://www.winnipegfreepress.com/local/future-of-churchill-hospital-in-question-467229543.html. Accessed 30 May 2018
  31. Smit B, Wandel J (2006) Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Glob Environ Chang 16:282–292.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.03.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Smith A et al (2017) Beluga whale summer habitat associations in the Nelson River estuary, western Hudson Bay, Canada. PLoS One 12(8).  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181045
  33. Sorensen C et al (2018) Rethinking coastal community approaches to climate change impacts and adaptation. J Coast Res Special Issue 85:1521–1525.  https://doi.org/10.2112/SI85-305.1
  34. Statistics Canada (2016) Census Profile, 2016 Census Churchill, Town [Census subdivision], Manitoba and Manitoba [Province]. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CSD&Code1=4623056&Geo2=PR&Code2=46&Data=Count&SearchText=Division%20No.%2023&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All. Accessed 30 May 2018
  35. Stirling I, Derocher AE (2012) Effects of climate warming on polar bears: a review of the evidence. Glob Chang Biol 18(9):2694–2706.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02753.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Stults M, Woodruff S (2017) Looking under the hood of local adaptation plans: shedding light on the actions prioritized to build local resilience to climate change. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 22(8):1249–1279.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-016-9725-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Stults M et al (2015) Assessing the climate adaptation resource and service landscape. In: Bullock JA, Haddow GD, Haddow KS, Coppola DP (eds), Living with climate change: how communities are surviving and thriving in a changing climate. Auerbach Publications, Boca Raton, Florida, United States, 286pGoogle Scholar
  38. Sustainable Development Province of Manitoba (n.d.-a) Crown Land and Aboriginal Land Programs Section. https://www.gov.mb.ca/sd/lands_branch. Accessed 30 May 2018
  39. Sustainable Development Province of Manitoba (n.d.-b) How will climate change affect Manitoba? https://www.gov.mb.ca/sd/climate/climate_effect.html#norcom. Accessed May 2018
  40. Veeman M, Veeman TS (2006) Canadian wheat board. The Canadian Encyclopedia. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/canadian-wheat-board/. Accessed 30 May 2018
  41. Wallace B (2017) A framework for adapting to climate change risk in coastal cities. Environ Haz 16(2):149–164.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17477891.2017.1298511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wilder JM (2017) Polar bear attacks on humans: implications of a changing climate. Wildl Soc Bull 41(3):537–547.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wsb.783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wolf D (2004) A reanalysis and reinterpretation of geodetic and geological evidence of glacial-isostatic adjustment in the Churchill region, Hudson Bay. Surv Geophys 27(1):19–61. Retrieved from http://gfzpublic.gfz-potsdam.de/pubman/item/escidoc:8642:5/component/escidoc:8641/0411.pdfCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Urban and Regional Planning, Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric SciencesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

Section editors and affiliations

  • Anabela Marisa Azul
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Neuroscience and Cell BiologyUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal