Climate Action

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: Role of Mangroves in Southeast Asia

Living reference work entry


Climate change refers to a change in the state of the climate that can be identified by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer (IPCC 2014). Managing the risks of climate change involves mitigation and adaptation decisions with implications for future generations, economies, and environments.

Climate change mitigation refers to actions to limit the magnitude or rate of long-term global climate change and its related effect. This mainly involves reducing the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and stabilizing the levels of these heat-trapping greenhouse gases in the atmosphere within a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened, and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.

Climate change adaptation is the adjustment of natural or human systems to the changing climate,...

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jeffrey Sachs Center on Sustainable DevelopmentSunway University, Bandar SunwayPetaling JayaMalaysia
  2. 2.School of Mathematical SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPulau PinangMalaysia

Section editors and affiliations

  • S. Jeff Birchall
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Urban and Regional Planning, Department of Earth and Atmospheric SciencesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada