Responsible Consumption and Production

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Hazardous Substances

  • Jolita KruopienėEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71062-4_29-1

Synonyms

Definition

Hazardous substances have a potential ability to cause harm. A substance being hazardous is a consequence of one or more of its intrinsic physicochemical, toxicological, and ecotoxicological properties.

To define what is “hazardous,” criteria are needed. The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is an internationally agreed-upon standard managed by the United Nations (2017). It has been enacted in many countries in the world, including European Union (in the CLP Regulation) and the United States (in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards). According to it, a hazardous chemical is any substance or mixture fulfilling the criteria relating to one or more physical hazards, health hazards, or environmental hazards, and such a chemical shall be classified in relation to the respective hazard classes provided for in GHS (or, in...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Bourguignon D (2016) EU policy and legislation on chemicals. European Parliamentary Research Service, PE 595.861Google Scholar
  2. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (2014) List of MAK and BAT values 2014. Maximum concentrations and biological tolerance values at the workplace. Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area. Report No. 50. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 309 ppGoogle Scholar
  3. Diamond ML et al (2015) Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution. Environ Int 78:8–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. EEA – European Environment Agency (2001) Late lessons from early warnings: the precautionary principle 1896–2000. Environmental issue report no. 22. Publications Office, Luxembourg, 210 pp. Retrieved from https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/environmental_issue_report_2001_22
  5. EEA – European Environment Agency (2012) The impacts of endocrine disruptors on wildlife, people and their environments. EEA technical report no. 2/2012. Publications Office, Luxembourg, 112 ppGoogle Scholar
  6. EEA – European Environment Agency (2013) Late lessons from early warnings: science, precaution, innovation. EEA report no. 1/2013. Publications Office, Luxembourg, 746 ppGoogle Scholar
  7. EFSA – European Food Safety Authority (2014) Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for chromium. EFSA J 12(10):3845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. European Commission (2006) Memorandum on hair dying substances and their skin sensitizing properties. Health and consumer protection Directorate-General, 11 ppGoogle Scholar
  9. EWG – the Environmental Working Group (2013) Dirty dozen endocrine disruptors. Retrieved June 2018 from https://www.ewg.org/research/dirty-dozen-list-endocrine-disruptors
  10. Goldhaber SB (2003) Trace element risk assessment: essentiality vs. toxicity. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 38:232–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2017) Some organophosphate insecticides and herbicides. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans; volume 112. IARC, Lyon, 2017, 464 ppGoogle Scholar
  12. IPCS – International Programme on Chemical Safety (2002) Global assessment of the state-of-the-science of endocrine disruptors. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  13. Järup L (2003) Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br Med Bull 68:167–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kümmerer K (ed) (2004) Pharmaceuticals in the environment: sources, fate, effects and risks. Springer, Berlin, 527 ppGoogle Scholar
  15. Lönngren R (1992) International approaches to chemicals control: a historical overview. The National Chemicals Inspectorate, Stockholm, 512 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. North CN et al (2016) Developing a framework for assessing chemical respiratory sensitization: a workshop report. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 80:295–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Primozone (2018) Why micropollutants are a problem in the water environment. Retrieved in June 2018 from http://micropollutants.com/About-micropollutants
  18. Rockström J, Steffen W, Noone K, Persson Å, Chapin FS III, Lambin E, Lenton TM, Scheffer M, Folke C, Schellnhuber H, Nykvist B, De Wit CA, Hughes T, van der Leeuw S, Rodhe H, Sörlin S, Snyder PK, Costanza R, Svedin U, Falkenmark M, Karlberg L, Corell RW, Fabry VJ, Hansen J, Walker B, Liverman D, Richardson K, Crutzen P, Foley J (2009) Planetary boundaries: exploring the safe operating space for humanity. Ecol Soc 14(2):32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. UNEP and WHO (2013) State of the science of endocrine disrupting chemicals – 2012. UNEP/WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  20. United Nations (2017) Globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals. Seventh revised edition. ST/SG/AC.10/30/Rev.7. https://www.unece.org/trans/danger/publi/ghs/ghs_rev07/07files_e.html#c61353
  21. United States EPA (2007) Pesticide market estimates. Agriculture, home and garden. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/pesticides#3_6
  22. WMO (World Meteorological Organization) (2014) Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: 2014. Global ozone research and monitoring project – report no. 55. World Meteorological Organisation, Geneva, 416 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Environmental EngineeringKaunas University of TechnologyKaunasLithuania

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ulla Saari
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept of Industrial Management, Center for Innovation and Technology ResearchTampere UniversityTampereFinland