Sustainable Cities and Communities

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Changing Spatialities of Employment: Geographies of Industry and Services

  • Simonetta Armondi
  • Giulia FiniEmail author
Living reference work entry


The employment is the right to work, from the peculiar perspective of the spatial conditions and opportunities. Against the backdrop of the intense development of ICTs and their effects on labor, spaces, and socioeconomic dynamics, the terms “production” and “employment” need to be referred to economic activities, in which the separation between manufacturing, services, and retail sectors is increasingly blurred. The spatial dimension of the employment (the workplaces) is a crucial effect provided by both the spatial transformation of industrial spaces and services spaces, to the ongoing multifaceted urban and regional change transformation.


Since the late 1970s, a combination of technological change and economic and policy choices has generated what are recognized as the “great inversion” (Martin et al. 2018) and the “new geography of jobs” (Moretti 2012). A key characteristic of this shift is that it was based, in large part, on a unique form and...

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Architecture and Urban StudiesPolitecnico di MilanoMilanItaly

Section editors and affiliations

  • Elisa Conticelli
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Architecture, School of Engineering and ArchitectureAlma Mater Studiorum – University of BolognaBolognaItaly