Sustainable Cities and Communities

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Compact City as a Model Achieving Sustainable Development

  • Elisa ConticelliEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71061-7_35-1

Synonyms

Definition

There is not a common definition of compact city in literature, indeed this concept is one of the most discussed in contemporary urban policy. Nevertheless, the compact city model is expected to improve cities’ environmental, social, and economic performance, by influencing the use of space and by integrating different urban policies.

The compact city definition can be structured with reference to the following approaches: “to increase built area and residential population densities; to intensify urban economic, social and cultural activities and to manipulate urban size, form and structure and settlement systems in pursuit of the environmental, social and global sustainability benefits derived from the concentration of urban functions” (Burgess 2000, pp. 9–10).

The 2012 OECD Report on Compact City Policies gives a synthetic definition of the compact city as a “Spatial urban form characterized by...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Amirtahmasebi R, Orloff M, Wahba S, Altman A (2016) Regenerating urban land. A practitioner’s guide to leveraging private investment. World Bank Group, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arbury J (2006) From urban sprawl to compact city – an analysis of urban growth management in Auckland. University of Auckland, AucklandGoogle Scholar
  3. Bramley G, Power S (2009) Urban form and social sustainability: the role of density and housing type. Environ Plann B 36:30–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Breheny MJ (1992) The contradictions of the compact city: a review. In: Breheny MJ (ed) Sustainable development and urban form. Pion Ltd., London, pp 138–159Google Scholar
  5. Breheny MJ (1995) The compact city and transport energy consumption. Trans Inst Br Geogr 20(1):81–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Breheny MJ (1996) Centrists, decentrists and compromisers: views on the future of urban form. In: Jenks M, Burton E, Williams K (eds) The compact city: a sustainable urban form? E & FN Spon, London, pp 13–35Google Scholar
  7. Burgess R (2000) The compact city debate: a global perspective. In: Jenks M, Burgess R (eds) Compact cities. Sustainable urban forms for developing countries. Spon Press, London, pp 9–24Google Scholar
  8. Burton E (2002) Measuring urban compactness in UK towns and cities. Environ Plan B Plan Des 29(2):219–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burton E, Jenks M, Williams K (eds) (2000) Achieving sustainable urban form. E & FN Spon, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Calthorpe P (1993) The next American metropolis: ecology, community and the American dream. Princeton Architectural Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Churchman A (1999) Disentangling the concept of density. J Plan Lit 13(4):389–411.  https://doi.org/10.1177/08854129922092478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (1990) Green paper on the urban environment. European Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  13. Congress for the New Urbanism (CUN) (1999) Charter of the new urbanism. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Conticelli E, Proli S, Tondelli S (2017) Integrating energy efficiency and urban densification policies: Two Italian case studies, Energ Buildings 155:308–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Danielsen KA, Lang RE, Fulton W (1999) Retracting suburbia: Smart growth and the future of housing Hous Policy Debate 10(3)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Duany A, Plater-Zyberk E (1991) Towns and town-making principles. Rizzoli International, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Dunham-Jones E, Williamson J (2009) Retrofitting suburbia. Urban design solutions for redesigning suburbs. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  18. Gordon P, Richardson HW (1997) Are compact cities a desirable planning goal? American Planning Association. J Am Plann Assoc 63(1):95–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hirt S (2007) The compact versus the dispersed city: History of planning ideas on sofia’s urban form. J Plan Hist 6(2):138–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jabareen YR (2006) Sustainable urban forms: their typologies, models, and concepts. J Plan Educ Res 26:38–52.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0739456X05285119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jacobs J (1961) The death and life of great American cities. Random House, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Jenks M, Burgess R (eds) (2000) Compact cities. Sustainable urban forms for developing countries. Spon Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  23. Jenks M, Jones C (eds) (2010) Dimensions of the sustainable city. Springer, Dordrecht/Heidelberg/London/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Jenks M, Burton E, Williams K (eds) (1996) The compact city: a sustainable urban form? E & FN Spon, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Kühn M (2003) Green belt and green heart: separating and integrating landscapes in European city regions. Landsc Urban Plan 64(1–2):19–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mindali O, Raveh A, Salomon I (2004) Urban density and energy consumption: a new look at old statistics. Transp Res A 38:143–162Google Scholar
  27. Moroni S (2016) Urban density after Jane Jacobs: the crucial role of diversity and emergence. City Territ Archit 3(13):1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40410-016-0041-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Neuman M (2005) The compact city fallacy. J Plan Educ Res 25(1):11–26.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0739456X04270466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Newman P (1992) The compact city: an Australian perspective. Built Environ 18(4):285–300Google Scholar
  30. Newman P, Kenworthy J (1989) Gasoline consumption and cities: a comparison of U.S. cities with a global survey. J Am Plan Assoc 55(1):24–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. OECD (2012) Compact city policies: a comparative assessment. OECD Green Growth Studies, OECD Publishing, Paris.  https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264167865-enCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Reale L (2008) Densità, città, residenza. Tecniche di densificazione e strategie anti-sprawl [Density, city, housing. densification techniques and no-sprowl strategies], Gangemi, RomeGoogle Scholar
  33. Smart Growth Network (2006) This is smart growth. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-04/documents/this-is-smart-growth.pdf. Accessed 6 May 2018
  34. Stretton H (1996) Density, efficient and equality in Australian cities. In: Jenks M, Burton E, Williams K (eds) The compact city: a sustainable urban form? E & FN Spon, London, pp 37–43Google Scholar
  35. Tachieva G (2010) Sprawl repair manual. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  36. Tang BS, Wong SW, Lee AKW (2007) Green belt in a compact city: a zone for conservation or transition? Landsc Urban Plan 79(3–4):358–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Thomas L, Cousins W (1996) The compact city: a successful, desirable and achievable urban form? In: Jenks M, Burton E, Williams K (eds) The compact city: a sustainable urban form? E & FN Spon, London, pp 53–65Google Scholar
  38. UN-Habitat (2016) Urbanization and development: emerging futures. World cities report 2016. United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat), NairobiGoogle Scholar
  39. UN-Habitat (2018) Tracking progress towards inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities and human settlements. SDG 11 synthesis report high level political forum 2018. United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat), NairobiGoogle Scholar
  40. Urban Task Force (1999) Towards an urban renaissance. Spon, LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. Williams K (1999) Urban intensification policies in England: problems and contradictions. Land Use Policy 16(3):167–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Williams K, Burton E, Jenks M (eds) (2000) Achieving sustainable urban form, E & FN Spon, LondonGoogle Scholar
  43. World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) (1987) Our common future. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Architecture, School of Engineering and ArchitectureAlma Mater Studiorum – University of BolognaBolognaItaly

Section editors and affiliations

  • Luciana Brandli
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Passo FundoPasso FundoBrazil