Sustainable Cities and Communities

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Urban Pollution and Emission Reduction

  • M. Martínez-BravoEmail author
  • J. Martínez-del-RíoEmail author
Living reference work entry


Although there is not a universally accepted definition, the concept of urban pollution refers to the presence or introduction in cities and urban areas of poisonous or harmful substances.

Urban pollution may come from natural sources, but the most detrimental are those emissions related to human activities. The anthropogenic sources of pollution, such as factories, industries, transportation, and so on, are typically exacerbated in cities due to the local concentration of humans and human activities. For instance, pollution in cities is affected by global environmental threads, such as global warming, and by locally originated environmental challenges, such as waste management, recycling, and light and noise generation.


The latest assessments carried out by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 2016 revealed the extent of environmental problems. Pollution affects air, water, land, oceans, and even climate (Diamond et al. 2015), influencing their...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Business and Economics DepartmentUniversity of AlmeriaAlmeríaSpain

Section editors and affiliations

  • Luciana Brandli
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Passo FundoPasso FundoBrazil