Sustainable Cities and Communities

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Food Security

  • Issa Ibrahim Berchin
  • Wellyngton Silva de Amorim
  • José Baltazar Salgueirinho Osório de Andrade GuerraEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71061-7_18-1

Synonyms

Definition

The definition of food security within the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is based on the statement from the Rome Declaration on World Food Security and the World Food Summit Plan of Action: FAO’s formal definition of food security is “when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (FAO 1996).

Aiming to ensure food security for all, at all times, the World Food Summit (FAO 1996) declared seven commitments:
  • We will ensure an enabling political, social, and economic environment designed to create the best conditions for the eradication of poverty and for durable peace, based on full and equal participation of women and men, which is most conducive to achieving sustainable food security for all.

  • We will implement policies aimed at eradicating poverty and inequality and...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Anderson JR (2018) Concepts of Stability in Food Security. Reference Module in Food Science.  https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-08-100596-5.22315-9[WA1]
  2. Amar-Klemesu M (2000) Urban agriculture and food security, nutrition and health. Thematic paper 4Google Scholar
  3. Ayele S, Wield D (2005) Science and technology capacity building and partnership in African agriculture: perspectives on Mali and Egypt. J Int Dev 17:631–646.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jid.1228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Badami MG, Ramankutty N (2015) Urban agriculture and food security: a critique based on an assessment of urban land constraints. Glob Food Sec 4:8–15.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2014.10.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Badia-Melis R, Garcia-Hierro J, Ruiz-Garcia L, Jiménez-Ariza T, Villalba JIR, Barreiro P (2014) Assessing the dynamic behavior of WSN motes and RFID semi-passive tags for temperature monitoring. Comput Electron Agric 103:11–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Belesky P (2014) Regional governance, food security and rice reserves in East Asia. Glob Food Sec 3:167–173.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2014.09.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berry EM, Dernini S, Burlingame B, Meybeck A, Conforti P (2015) Food security and sustainability: can one exist without the other? Pub Health Nutri 18(13):2293–2302.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s136898001500021xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bickel G, Nord M, Price C, Hamilton W, Cook J (2000) Measuring food security in the United States. Guide to measuring household food security, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Available at http://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/FSGuide.pdf. Accessed 12 Feb 2018
  9. Brosnan T, Sun DW (2004) Improving quality inspection of food products by computer vision – a review. J Food Eng 61:3–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(03)00183-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Broussard NH, Dercon S, Somanathan R (2014) Aid and agency in Africa: explaining food disbursements across Ethiopian households, 1994–2004. J Dev Econ 108:128–137.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2014.02.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carletto C, Jolliffe D, Banerjee R (2015) From tragedy to renaissance: improving agricultural data for better policies. J Dev Stud 51:133–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carvalho FP (2006) Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety. Environ Sci Pol 9:685–692.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2006.08.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Derkzen P, Morgan KJ (2012) Food and the City: The Challenge of Urban Food Governance. In: Viljoen, A. and Wiskerke, J. S. C. eds. Sustainable Food Planning: Evolving Theory and Practice, Wageningen: Wageningen University Press, pp. 61–66Google Scholar
  14. Chaifetz A, Jagger P (2014) 40 years of dialogue on food sovereignty: a review and a look ahead. Glob Food Sec 3:85–91.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2014.04.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dieleman H (2017) Urban agriculture in Mexico City; balancing between ecological, economic, social and symbolic value. Journal of Cleaner Production 163, S156–S163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Clark JK, Sharp J, Dugan KL (2015) The agrifood system policy agenda and research domain. J Rural Stud 42:112–122.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2015.10.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Devereux S (2016) Social protection for enhanced food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Food Policy 60:52–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2015.03.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dimitri C, Oberholtzer L, Zive M, Sandolo C (2015) Enhancing food security of low-income consumers: an investigation of financial incentives for use at farmers markets. Food Policy 52:64–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2014.06.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dramstad WE, Fry G, Fjellstad WJ, Skar B, Helliksen W, Sollund ML, Tveit MS, Geelmuyden AK, Framstad E (2001) Integrating landscape-based values – Norwegian monitoring of agricultural landscapes. Landsc Urban Plan 57:257–268.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(01)00208-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fan S, Brzeska J (2016) Sustainable food security and nutrition: demystifying conventional beliefs. Glob Food Sec 11:11–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2016.03.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. FAO (1996) Rome Declaration on World Food Security. World Food Summit, Rome. Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/w3613e/w3613e00.HTM. Accessed 19 Feb 2018
  22. FAO (2008) An introduction to the basic concepts of food security. FAO, Rome. Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/al936e/al936e00.pdf. Accessed 19 Feb 2018
  23. FAO (2009) Declaration of the World Food Summit on food security. Available at http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/wsfs/Summit/Docs/Declaration/WSFS09_Draft_Declaration.pdf. Accessed 30 July 2018
  24. FAO (2016) Climate change and food security: risks and responses. FAO, Rome. Available at http://www.fao.org/3/a-i5188e.pdf. Accessed 19 Feb 2018
  25. FAO (2018) Urban agriculture. Available at http://www.fao.org/urban-agriculture/en/. Accessed 19 Feb 2018
  26. Ferreira J, Esteves B, Cruz-Lopes L, Evtuguin DV, Domingos I (2018) Environmental advantages through producing energy from grape stalk pellets instead of wood pellets and other sources. International Journal of Environmental Studies 1–15Google Scholar
  27. Folke C, Carpenter S, Elmqvist T, Gunderson L, Holling CS, Walker B (2002) Resilience and sustainable development: building adaptive capacity in a world of transformations. AMBIO J Hum Environ 31:437–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Foster AD, Rosenzweig MR (1995) Learning by doing and learning from others: human capital and technical change in agriculture. J Polit Econ 103:1176–1209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fritz S et al (2015) Mapping global cropland and field size. Glob Chang Biol 21:1980–1992.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Garnett T et al (2013) Sustainable intensification in agriculture: premises and policies. Science 341:33–34.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1234485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gebbers R, Adamchuk VI (2010) Precision agriculture and food security. Science 327:828–831.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1183899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Godfray HCJ et al (2010) Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science 327:812–818.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1185383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gould G (2017) “Nutrition: A world of insecurity”, Nature 544, online.Google Scholar
  34. Grewal SS, Grewal PS (2012) Can cities become self-reliant in food? Cities 29(1):1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Haysom G, Tawodzera G (2018) “Measurement drives diagnosis and response”: gaps in transferring food security assessment to the urban scale. Food Policy 74:117–125.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2017.12.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Holden ST, Ghebru H (2016) Land tenure reforms, tenure security and food security in poor agrarian economies: causal linkages and research gaps. Glob Food Sec 10:21–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2016.07.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Iglesias A, Garrote L (2015) Adaptation strategies for agricultural water management under climate change in Europe. Agric Water Manag 155:113–124.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2015.03.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jakobsen J, Rasmussen K, Leisz S, Folving R, Quang NV (2007) The effects of land tenure policy on rural livelihoods and food sufficiency in the upland village of Que, North Central Vietnam. Agric Syst 94:309–319.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2006.09.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Just DR, Gabrielyan G (2016) Why behavioral economics matters to global food policy. Glob Food Sec 11:26–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2016.05.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. King T, Cole M, Farber JM, Eisenbrand G, Zabaras D, Fox EM, Hill JP (2017) Food safety for food security: relationship between global megatrends and developments in food safety. Trends Food Sci Technol 68:160–175.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2017.08.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Klerkx L, Hall A, Leeuwis C (2009) Strengthening agricultural innovation capacity: are innovation brokers the answer? Int J Agric Resour Gov Ecol 8:409–438Google Scholar
  42. Larder N, Sippel SR, Lawrence G (2015) Finance capital, food security narratives and Australian agricultural land. J Agrar Chang 15:592–603.  https://doi.org/10.1111/joac.12108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Larson DF, Muraoka R, Otsuka K (2016) Why African rural development strategies must depend on small farms. Glob Food Sec 10:39–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2016.07.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lele U, Klousia-Marquis M, Goswami S (2013) Good governance for food, water and energy security. Aquat Procedia 1:44–63.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aqpro.2013.07.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lentz EC, Barrett CB (2013) The economics and nutritional impacts of food assistance policies and programs. Food Policy 42:151–163.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2013.06.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lynch T, Gregor S, Midmore D (2000) Intelligent support systems in agriculture: how can we do better? Anim Prod Sci 40:609–620.  https://doi.org/10.1071/EA99082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McCarthy N, Lipper L, Zilberman D (2018) Economics of Climate Smart Agriculture: An Overview. In Climate Smart Agriculture (pp. 31–47). Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  48. Magalhães R (2014) Evaluation of public policies and initiatives in food and nutrition security: dilemmas and methodological perspectives. Cien Saude Colet 19(5):1339–1346.  https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232014195.12202013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Makuvaro V, Walker S, Masere TP, Dimes J (2018) Smallholder farmer perceived effects of climate change on agricultural productivity and adaptation strategies. J Arid Environ 152:75–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Matacena R (2016) Linking alternative food networks and urban food policy: a step forward in the transition towards a sustainable and equitable food system? Int Rev Soc Res 6:49.  https://doi.org/10.1515/irsr-2016-0007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Maxwell D, Wiebe K (1999) Land tenure and food security: exploring dynamic linkages. Dev Chang 30:825–849.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-7660.00139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Maye D (2018) ‘Smart food city’: conceptual relations between smart city planning, urban food systems and innovation theory. City Cult Soc.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccs.2017.12.001
  53. Moragues-Faus A (2017) Emancipatory or neoliberal food politics? Exploring the “politics of collectivity” of buying groups in the search for egalitarian food democracies. Antipode 49(2):455–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Morgan K, Sonnino R (2010) The urban foodscape: world cities and the new food equation. Cam J Reg Econ Soc 3(2):209–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nehring R, Miranda A, Howe A (2017) Making the case for institutional demand: supporting smallholders through procurement and food assistance programmes. Glob Food Sec 12:96–102.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2016.09.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ninno C, Dorosh PA, Subbarao K (2007) Food aid, domestic policy and food security: contrasting experiences from South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Food Policy 32:413–435.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2006.11.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Oosterveer P, Adjei BE, Vellema S, Slingerland M (2014) Global sustainability standards and food security: exploring unintended effects of voluntary certification in palm oil. Glob Food Sec 3:220–226.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2014.09.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Otsuka K, Liu Y, Yamauchi F (2016) Growing advantage of large farms in Asia and its implications for global food security. Glob Food Sec 11:5–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2016.03.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pérez-Escamilla R (2012) Can experience-based household food security scales help improve food security governance? Glob Food Sec 1:120–125.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2012.10.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Poulsen MN, McNab PR, Clayton ML, Neff RA (2015) A systematic review of urban agriculture and food security impacts in low-income countries. Food Policy 55:131–146.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2015.07.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pratley J (2008) Workforce planning in agriculture: agricultural education and capacity building at the crossroads. Farm Policy J 5:27–41Google Scholar
  62. Raynolds LT, Murray D, Leigh Taylor P (2004) Fair trade coffee: building producer capacity via global networks. J Int Dev 16:1109–1121.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jid.1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sanchez PA (2000) Linking climate change research with food security and poverty reduction in the tropics. Agriculture. Ecosys Environ 82:371–383.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(00)00238-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Shete M, Rutten M (2015) Impacts of large-scale farming on local communities’ food security and income levels – empirical evidence from Oromia region, Ethiopia. Land Use Policy 47:282–292.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.01.034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sonnino R (2009) Feeding the city: Towards a new research and planning agenda. Int Plan Stud 14(4):425–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sonnino R (2016) The new geography of food security: exploring the potential of urban food strategies. Geo J 182(2):190–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tendall DM, Joerin J, Kopainsky B, Edwards P, Shreck A, Le QB, Kruetli P, Grant M, Six J (2015) Food system resilience: defining the concept. Glob Food Sec 6:17–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2015.08.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Terry W (2014) Solving labor problems and building capacity in sustainable agriculture through volunteer tourism. Ann Tour Res 49:94–107.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2014.09.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Thornton PK, Herrero M (2014) Climate change adaptation in mixed crop–livestock systems in developing countries. Glob Food Sec 3:99–107.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2014.02.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tilman D, Balzer C, Hill J, Befort BL (2011) Global food demand and the sustainable intensification of agriculture. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:20260–20264.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1116437108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tirivayi N, Knowles M, Davis B (2016) The interaction between social protection and agriculture: a review of evidence. Glob Food Sec 10:52–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2016.08.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tscharntke T, Clough Y, Wanger TC, Jackson L, Motzke I, Perfecto I, Vandermeer J, Whitbread A (2012) Global food security, biodiversity conservation and the future of agricultural intensification. Biol Conserv 151:53–59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.01.068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. United Nations (2015) Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available at https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld. Accessed 27 Feb 2018
  74. United Nations (2018a) Goal 2: end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. Available at https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg2. Accessed 27 Feb 2018
  75. United Nations (2018b) Goal 11: make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. Available at https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg11. Accessed 27 Feb 2018
  76. van Vliet JA, Schut AGT, Reidsma P, Descheemaeker K, Slingerland M, van de Ven GWJ, Giller KE (2015) De-mystifying family farming: features, diversity and trends across the globe. Glob Food Sec 5:11–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2015.03.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Vermeulen SJ et al (2013) Addressing uncertainty in adaptation planning for agriculture. Proc Natl Acad Sci 110:8357–8362.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1219441110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. von Braun J (2008) Food and financial crises: implications for agriculture and the poor. International Food Policy Research Institute. Available at https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/6289061.pdf. Accessed 12 Feb 2018
  79. Warren E, Hawkesworth S, Knai C (2015) Investigating the association between urban agriculture and food security, dietary diversity, and nutritional status: a systematic literature review. Food Policy 53:54–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2015.03.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Welch RM, Graham RD (1999) A new paradigm for world agriculture: meeting human needs: productive, sustainable, nutritious. Field Crop Res 60:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(98)00129-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wilkinson J (2015) Food security and the global agrifood system: ethical issues in historical and sociological perspective. Glob Food Sec 7:9–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2015.12.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Issa Ibrahim Berchin
    • 1
  • Wellyngton Silva de Amorim
    • 1
  • José Baltazar Salgueirinho Osório de Andrade Guerra
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Research Center for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability (Greens)Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina (Unisul)FlorianópolisBrazil
  2. 2.Cambridge Centre for Environment, Energy and Natural Resource Governance (C-EENRG), Department of Land EconomyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Samuel Borges Barbosa
    • 1
  1. 1.Federal University of ViçosaRio ParanaíbaBrazil