Sustainable Cities and Communities

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Non-motorized Transport: Walking and Cycling

  • Matt BiggarEmail author
Living reference work entry



Non-motorized transport includes walking, cycling, and variations of small-wheeled, human-powered transportation modes. With the exception of walking, these modes utilize non-motorized vehicles such as bicycles, skateboards, push scooters, wheelchairs, and rickshaws. This entry focuses on the two primary non-motorized, or active, modes – walking and cycling for transport.

Walking and cycling for transport is defined as walking and cycling to get to and from places (Turrell et al. 2014) that provide substantial health benefits for users from increased physical activity (Mueller et al. 2015). Places, or destinations, for walking and cycling include work, home, stores, recreational settings, and other everyday life places. Walking and cycling are a form of exercise, but moving in these ways purely for exercise is not included in this definition. Walkability and bikeabilityrefer...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Connected to PlaceSan FranciscoUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Astrid Skjerven
    • 1
  1. 1.OsloMet -Oslo Metropolitan UniversityOsloNorway