Decent Work and Economic Growth

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Future-Proofing Oceans for Food Security and Poverty Alleviation

  • Saleem MustafaEmail author
  • Abentin Estim
  • Rossita Shapawi
Living reference work entry


Ecological restoration, rehabilitation, and remediation

These are related terms which in this entry are explained as clearly as possible by adapting the definitions provided by Edwards and Gomez (2007). Restoration refers to actions or processes of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed to bring it back into, as nearly as possible, its pristine condition. Rehabilitation is about partially or, more rarely, fully replacing structural or functional characteristics of ecosystems that have been diminished or lost or the substitution of alternative qualities or characteristics than those originally present with the proviso that they have more social, economic, or ecological value that existed in the disturbed or degraded state. Remediation is the act or process of remedying or repairing damage to an ecosystem.

Blue economy and blue growth

Blue economy implies the use of coasts and seas for economic activities with due consideration of...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saleem Mustafa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Abentin Estim
    • 1
  • Rossita Shapawi
    • 1
  1. 1.Borneo Marine Research InstituteUniversiti Malaysia SabahKota KinabaluMalaysia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Rosa Maria Fernandez
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Social and Political ScienceUniversity of ChesterChesterUK