Decent Work and Economic Growth

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Amanda Lange Salvia, Tony Wall

Human Trafficking as a Conflict Financing Measure

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71058-7_122-1

Synonyms

Definitions

The definition of “human trafficking” as contained in The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children. Article 3 of the 2000 UN Protocol on Human Trafficking states that Trafficking in persons shall mean:
  1. (a)

    The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power, or a position of vulnerability, or the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Akhavan P et al (2020) What justice for the Yazidi genocide?: voices from below. Hum Rights Q 42(1):1–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amnesty International (2017) Libya’s dark web of collusion: abuses against Europe-bound refugees and migrantsGoogle Scholar
  3. Anthias F (2013) The intersections of class, gender, sexuality and “race”: the political economy of gendered violence. Int J Poli Cult Soc 27(2):153–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bigio J (2020) Human trafficking helps terrorists earn money and strategic advantage. Foreign Policy. https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/01/31/human-trafficking-helps-terrorists-earn-money-and-strategic-advantage/. Accessed 14 April 2020
  5. Chatham House (2017) The political economy of the central Mediterranean route: exploring policy options to stem smuggling & trafficking in North and West AfricaGoogle Scholar
  6. FATF (2015) Financing of the terrorist organisation Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). http://www.fatf-gafi.org/media/fatf/documents/reports/Financing-of-the-terrorist-organisation-ISIL.pdf. Accessed 14 April 2020
  7. FATF (2016) Terrorist financing in West and Central Africa. http://www.fatf-gafi.org/media/fatf/documents/reports/Terrorist-Financing-West-Central-Africa.pdf. Accessed 14 April 2020
  8. FATF-APG (2018) Financial flows from human trafficking. https://www.fatf-gafi.org/media/fatf/content/images/Human-Trafficking-2018.pdf. Accessed 14 April 2020
  9. Fenton T, Muraszkiewicz J, Watson H, Maio G, Hesketh G, Wadhwa K (2019) Project solebay: modern slavery risk assessment and methodological description. Trilateral Research. https://www.trilateralresearch.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/Project-Solebay-Deliverable-3-Trilateral-Research_Final_Public.pdf. Accessed 4 May 2020
  10. Fitzherbert Y (2016) The most dangerous job in the world: the smugglers who rescue the women kidnapped by ISIL. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/08/27/the-most-dangerous-job-in-the-world-the-smugglers-who-rescue-the/. Accessed 14 April 2020
  11. Kotecha A (2020) Human trafficking, conflict and money flows. In: Muraszkiewicz J et al (eds) Human trafficking in conflict: context, causes and the military. Palgrave Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Kuschminder K, Triandafyllidou A (2020) Smuggling, trafficking, and extortion: new conceptual and policy challenges on the Libyan route to Europe. Antipode 52(1):206–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Liang CS (2016) The criminal-jihadist: insights into modern terrorist financing, Geneva Centre for Security Policy. https://dam.gcsp.ch/files/2y10TflBzyeiQACfYZl2yYpaGuBhSe3KV8jrjljD8vV3iRFQyrikhop2. Accessed 14 April 2020
  14. Malik N (2017) Trafficking terror: how modern slavery and sexual violence fund terrorism, The Henry Jackson Society. http://henryjacksonsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/HJS-Trafficking-Terror-Report-web.pdf. Accessed 14 April 2020
  15. Micallef M (2017) The human conveyor belt: human smuggling and trafficking in post-revolution Libya, The Global Initiative against Transnational Organised Crime. https://globalinitiative.net/report-the-human-conveyor-belt-trends-in-human-trafficking-and-smuggling-in-post-revolution-libya/. Accessed 8 April 2020
  16. Reitano T, Shaw M (2017) Libya the politics of power, protection, identity and illicit trade. United Nations University Centre for Policy Research. https://collections.unu.edu/eserv/UNU:6427/Libya_politics.pdf. Accessed 14 April 2020
  17. Reitano T et al (2018) Responding to the human trafficking-migrant smuggling nexus: with a focus on the situation in Libya, The Global Initiative Against Transnational Crime. https://globalinitiative.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Reitano-McCormack-Trafficking-Smuggling-Nexus-in-Libya-July-2018.pdf. Accessed 8 April 2020
  18. Roth K (2015) Slavery: the ISIS rules. Human Rights Watch. https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/09/05/slavery-isis-rules. Accessed 4 May 2020
  19. RULAC (2020) Non-armed conflicts in Libya, Geneva Academy. http://www.rulac.org/browse/conflicts/non-international-armed-conflicts-in-libya#collapse2accord. Accessed 7 April 2020
  20. RUSI (2015) Libya: a growing hub for Criminal Economies and Terrorist Financing in the Trans-Sahara. Royal United Services Institute. https://globalinitiative.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/TGIATOC-Libya_-a-growing-hub-for-Criminal-Economies-and-Terrorist-Financing-in-the-Trans-Sahara-web.pdf. Accessed 7 April 2020
  21. Shaw M, Mangan F (2014) Illicit Trafficking and Libya’s Transition: profits and losses. United States Institute for Peace. https://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/PW96-Illicit-Trafficking-and-Libyas-Transition.pdf. Accessed on 7 April 2020
  22. Shelley L (2009) Human trafficking: a global perspective. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  23. Sizer L (2017) Libya’s Terrorism, Challenge Assessing the Salafi-Jihadi Threat. zhttps://www.mei.edu/sites/default/files/publications/PP1_Sizer_LibyaCT_web.pdf. Accessed 14 April 2020
  24. Taylor M (2013) ‘Conflict financing: what’s wrong with war economies?’ Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/164674/738e4d8dd99cc71b53297ad29b01bae1.pdf. Accessed 4 May 2020
  25. UNDP, Human Development Report (2010) United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. United Nations, Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (2019) Identifying and exploring the nexus between human trafficking, terrorism, and terrorism financing. https://www.un.org/sc/ctc/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/HT-terrorism-nexus-CTED-report.pdf. Accessed 8 April 2020
  27. United Nations Human Rights Council (2016) They came to destroy: ISIS Crimes Against the Yazidis, Human Rights Council, A/HRC/32/CRP.S. https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/CoISyria/A_HRC_32_CRP.2_en.pdf. Accessed 8 April 2020
  28. United Nations, Security Council (2016a) Report of the Secretary-General on conflict-related sexual violence, S/2016/361Google Scholar
  29. United Nations, Security Council (2016b) The threat posed by ISIL (Da’esh) to international peace and security and the range of United Nations efforts in support of Member States in countering the threat: report of the Secretary-General, S/2016/92Google Scholar
  30. UNODC (2018) Trafficking in persons in the context of armed conflictGoogle Scholar
  31. Van Reisen MEH et al (2014) The human trafficking cycle: Sinai and beyond. https://www.justice.gov.il/Units/Trafficking/MainDocs/Small_HumanTrafficking-Sinai2-web-4.pdf. Accessed 14 April 2020
  32. Wennmann A (2007) The political economy of conflict financing: a comprehensive approach beyond natural resources. Glob Gov 13(3):427–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wheaton EM, Schauer EJ, Galli TV (2010) Economics of human trafficking. Int Migr 48(4):114–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Trilateral ResearchLondonUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Sonja Rewhorn
    • 1
  1. 1.Open UniversityChesterUK