Learning Differences and Digital Equity in the Classroom
This chapter addresses digital equity in the classroom for students with learning differences, as well as the role of technology in the provision of equitable education for the full diversity of students. The chapter discusses the evolving opportunities and challenges that information technology in the classroom presents to students with learning differences and their teachers.
To meaningfully understand this topic requires an understanding of the complex context, the forces at play, and their relation to students with learning differences. Among the forces at play are policies, regulations, the accessibility movement, technical trends, instructional design strategies, educational publishing, open education resources, pedagogical trends, quality control approaches in education, and governance of formal education. The chapter highlights the benefits to all students of designing the classroom experience for students with learning differences.
KeywordsInclusive design Inclusive education Accessibility Open Education Equity Diversity Inclusion
- Achieve. (n.d.). Achieving the common core. Retrieved 24 Feb 2017, from http://www.achieve.org/achieving-common-core.
- Allan, J., Ford, K., Richards, J., & Spellman, J. (2010). User agent accessibility guidelines (uaag) 2.0. W3C Working Draft. WWW Consortium (W3C).Google Scholar
- Anderson, K. (2016). How disability helped change Microsoft’s design principles for Cortana and Bing. onMSFT. Retrieved from onMSFT website: https://www.onmsft.com/news/disability-helped-change-microsofts-design-principles-cortana-bing.
- Beetham, H., & Sharpe, R. (2007). Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age : Designing and delivering e-learning. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Brunet, T., & Ramachandran, P. (2016). Accessible and inclusive content and applications. In Mobile application development, usability, and security (Vol. 54). IGI Global, Hershey PA, USA.Google Scholar
- Buehler, E., Hurst, A., & Hofmann, M. (2014). Coming to grips: 3D printing for accessibility. Paper presented at the proceedings of the 16th international ACM SIGACCESS conference on computers & accessibility, Rochester, New York.Google Scholar
- Caldwell, B., Cooper, M., Reid, L. G., & Vanderheiden, G. (2008). Web content accessibility guidelines (WCAG) 2.0. WWW Consortium (W3C).Google Scholar
- Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: resolution / adopted by the General Assembly January 2007. (2007).Google Scholar
- Dixon, S. (2005). Inclusion–Not segregation or integration is where a student with special needs belongs. The Journal of Educational Thought (JET)/Revue de la Pensée éducative, 39(1), 33–53.Google Scholar
- Epp, T. (2003). (Re) Claiming adulthood: Learning disabilities and social policy in Ontario. Disability Studies Quarterly, 23(2), 88–100.Google Scholar
- Fitzpatrick, S. (2014). Setting its sights on the Marrakesh Treaty: The US role in alleviating the book famine for persons with print disabilities. Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, 37, 139.Google Scholar
- Jackl, A., Treviranus, J., & Roberts, A. (2004). IMS access for all meta-data XML best practice and implementation guide v. 1.0, final specification. Retrieved 24 Feb 2017, from http://www.imsglobal.org/accessibility/accmdv1p0/imsaccmd_bestv1p0.html.
- Jacobs, S. (2002). The electronic curb-cut effect Retrieved 24 Feb 2017, from http://www.icdri.org/technology/ecceff.htm.
- Jacobs, I., Gunderson, J., Hansen, E., & Wc, I. J. (2000). User agent accessibility guidelines 1.0. WWW Consortium (W3C).Google Scholar
- Karam, M., Branje, C., Nespoli, G., Thompson, N., Russo, F. A., & Fels, D. I. (2010). The emoti-chair: An interactive tactile music exhibit. Paper presented at the CHI ’10 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Atlanta.Google Scholar
- Kuang, C. (2016). Microsoft’s radical bet on a new type of design thinking. Fast Company. Retrieved from Fast Company website: https://www.fastcodesign.com/3054927/the-big-idea/microsofts-inspiring-bet-on-a-radical-new-type-of-design-thinking.
- Lumen Learning. (2014). The 5 Rs of designing and OER course. eCampus News. Retrieved from eCampus News website: http://www.ecampusnews.com/top-news/oer-course-design-475/.
- National Research Council (U.S.), Committee on Defining Deeper Learning and 21st Century Skills, Pellegrino, J. W., Hilton, M. L., National Research Council (U.S.), Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council (U.S.), Board on Science Education, & National Research Council (U.S.), Center for Education, & Board on Testing and Assessment. (2012). Education for life and work: Developing transferable knowledge and skills in the 21st century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Page, S. E. (2007). The difference: How the power of diversity creates better groups, firms, schools, and societies. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Ptolomey, J. (2011). Government information and services: Accessibility and the digital divide. In P. Garvin (Ed.), Government information management in the 21st century: International perspectives (pp. x, 232 p.). Farnham/Burlington: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
- Richards, J., Spellman, J., & Treviranus, J. (2015). Authoring tool accessibility guidelines 2.0 (ATAG). https://www.w3.org/TR/ATAG20. WWW Consortium (W3C).
- Rifkin, J. (2014). The zero marginal cost society: The internet of things, the collaborative commons, and the eclipse of capitalism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Rose, T. (2015). The end of average: How we succeed in a world that values sameness (1st ed.). London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
- Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Motivation and self-regulated learning: Theory, research, and applications. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Thomson, R., Fichten, C. S., Havel, A., Budd, J., Asuncion, J. (2015). Blending universal design, e-learning, and information and communication technologies. In Universal design in higher education: From principles to practice (pp. 275–284). Harvard Education Press, Boston.Google Scholar
- Treviranus, J. (2000). Adding haptics and sound to spatial curriculum. Paper presented at the Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 2000 I.E. International Conference on.Google Scholar
- Treviranus, J. (2014b). The value of the statistically insignificant. Educause Review, 49, 46–47.Google Scholar
- Treviranus, J. (2016). Life-long learning on the inclusive web. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 13th Web for All Conference, Montreal.Google Scholar
- Treviranus, J., & Hockema, S. (2009). The value of the unpopular: Counteracting the popularity echo-chamber on the Web. In Science and Technology for Humanity (TIC-STH), 2009 IEEE Toronto International Conference (pp. 603–608). IEEE. Toronto.Google Scholar
- UN General Assembly. (2007). Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities: resolution/adopted by the general assembly, 24 January 2007, A/RES/61/106. http://www.refworld.org/docid/45f973632.html. Accessed 27 Feb 2018.
- Weigel, V. B. (2002). Deep learning for a digital age: Technology’s untapped potential to enrich higher education (1st ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Welles, B. F. (2014). On minorities and outliers: The case for making big data small. Big Data & Society, 1(1), 1–2, 2053951714540613.Google Scholar